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从关联理论和概论整合理论的角度分析 英汉商业保险广告中的双关语

时间:2020-08-08来源:硕士论文

AcknowledgEments In writing this thesis I have been supported by lots of people to whom I would like to express my thanks. They are so generous that without them I would never have been able to finish this thesis. Firstly, my heartfelt gratitude goes to my supervisor, Prof Zheng Xinmin, for his constant encouragement and guidance throughout the research as well as the whole journey of my learning for the master degree at SISU. During the past three years, Pro£ Zheng has guided me to read many books, assisted me in finding the appropriate research questions, taught me about the skills of research methods, and patiently helped me revise the thesis writing. It is his patience and understanding that made this thesis possible. I feel so fortunate to have him as my supervisor and will always cherish the friendship between us.
AcknowledgEments
In writing this thesis I have been supported by lots of people to whom I would like to express my thanks. They are so generous that without them I would never have been able to finish this thesis.
Firstly, my heartfelt gratitude goes to my supervisor, Prof Zheng Xinmin, for his constant encouragement and guidance throughout the research as well as the whole journey of my learning for the master degree at SISU. During the past three years, Pro£ Zheng has guided me to read many books, assisted me in finding the appropriate research questions, taught me about the skills of research methods, and patiently helped me revise the thesis writing. It is his patience and understanding that made this thesis possible. I feel so fortunate to have him as my supervisor and will always cherish the friendship between us.
Secondly, I would like to extend my sincere thanks to the other feculty members from SISU as I benefit a lot from their enlightening lectures and insightful discussions. When I came to here three years also, I knew little about linguistics though I was very interested in it. It is SISU's various classes and activities that expose me to the beauty of studying linguistics and help me lay a solid academic foundation.
Finally, I owe much to my family members as well as my friends. They always have great confidence in me and show deep concern for me. My family members, especially my parents, have always stood behind me and provided me with care and support. My friends patiently listen to me when I have anxiety attacks, comfort me and help me work out problems. Without their consistent support I would not be courageous enough to keep going ahead.
摘要
广告是现代社会人们生活中不可分割的一部分。为了在有限的时间和空间里 给受众留下印象,广告商们非常注重运用语言策略,而双关语是最常被用到的语 言修辞手法之一。商业保险作为社会保险的重要补充,正越来越受到人们的重视, 而近年来互联网的快速发展也使得购买商业保险更便利,例如支付宝和微信平台 均相继推出了商业保险产品。
本文从认知语用学的角度出发,结合关联理论和概念整合理论,对英汉商业 保险广告双关语的解读过程进行定性分析,旨在探讨两个理论在双关语研究上的 整合性运用,同时对收集的400条英汉商业保险广告进行定量分析,旨在研究双 关语在其中的出现频率和类型以及英汉广告中双关语使用的异同。
本文得出以下几点结论。首先,关联理论和概念整合理论的整合性运用对商 业保险广告双关语具有强大的解释力。一方面,关联理论为双关语意义的理解提 供了认知总原则,另一方面,概念整合理论通过心理空间的映射和合成将意义的 心理构建过程生动地展现了出来。其次,英汉商业保险广告中最常出现的双关语 类型大部分是语义双关,部分是谐音双关。汉语商业保险广告中双关语出现的频 率高于英语商业保险广告,并且汉语广告中谐音双关的占比远高于英语广告。
关键词:关联理论;概念整合理论;互补;双关;商业保险广告
Abstract
Advertisements have become part of people's life in modern society. To attract people to buy products, advertising language usually embody many rhetoric devices, among which punning is preferred. Commercial insurance, as an important supplement to social insurance, is receiving more and more attention from people. In recent years, the rapid development of the Internet has also made commercial insurance gain popularity and provided easy access for people to make a purchase online. For example, Alipay and WeChat have successively launched commercial insurance products.
This thesis attempts to investigate puns in Chinese and English commercial insurance ads with a cognitive-pragmatic approach derived from Relevance Theory and Conceptual Blending Theory. Through qualitative analysis, the purpose of this thesis is to explore the practicability of the integration of the two theories in pun studies. Besides, a quantitative analysis is conducted, in order to investigate the frequency of each type of pun as well as the similarities and differences of puns used in the analyzed 400 Chinese and English advertisements.
This study finds that first, the integration of both theories has strong explanatory power. Relevance Theory provides the main guiding principle for comprehending puns in ads, while Conceptual Blending Theory vividly illustrates the mental cognitive process of comprehending puns in ads with mental space mapping and integration. Next, the most frequently used type of pun in the analyzed ads of both languages is ho mo graphic puns, occurring much more often than homophonic puns. And in the analyzed ads, Chinese puns occur more frequently than English puns; Chinese homophonic puns account for a larger proportion than English counterparts.
Key Words: Relevance Theory; Conceptual Blending Theory; complementary; pun; commercial insurance ads
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Contents
Ackno wled gme nts I
摘要 II
Abstract Ill
Chapter One Introduction 1
1.1Research Background 1
1.2Scope and Purpose 2
1.3Significance of the Study 3
1.3.1Theoretical Significance 4
1.3.2Practical Significance 4
1.4Research Methods 4
1.5Structure of the Study 5
Chapter Two Literature Review 6
2.1Introduction 6
2.2An Overview of Pun 6
2.2.1Working Definition of Pun 6
2.2.2Classification ofPun 7
2.2.3Functions ofPun in Advertising 8
2.3Previous Studies on Pun 9
2.3.1A rhetoric approach 10
2.3.2A relevance-theoretic approach 11
2.3.3A cognitive approach 13
2.4Summary 14
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework and Research Methodology 15
3.1Introduction 15
3.2Relevance Theory 15
3.2.1Ostensive-Inferential Communication 15
3.2.2Definition of Relevance 16
3.2.3Principles of Relevance 16
3.3Conceptual Blending Theory 17
3.4Integration of RT and CBT: An Integrated Model CBR 19
3.4.1Similarities 20
3.4.2Conplementarities 21
3.4.3An Integrated Model CBR 22
3.5Methodology 24
3.5.1Data Collection and Identification 24
3.5.2Data Analysis 27
3.6Summary 28
Chapter Four Analysis of Puns in Advertisements 29
4.1Introduction 29
4.2Quantitative Analysis ofPuns in Ads 29
4.3Qualitative Analysis ofPuns in Ads 31
4.3.1Qualitative Analysis of Ho mo graphic Puns in Ads 32
4.3.2Qualitative Analysis ofHomophonic Puns in Ads 37
4.3.3Qualitative Analysis of Complex Puns in Ads 42
4.4Summary 45
Chapter Five Conclusion 47
5.1Summary of the Thesis 47
5.2Theoretical Contribution 48
5.3Practical Contribution 48
5.4Limitations of the Current Study 49
5.5Implications for Future Studies 49
Reference 51
Appendix 55
Chapter One Introduction
1.1Research Background
Language is powerful. It can directly influence people and their behavior. This is why advertisers always spend a lot of time racking their brains to create advertisements. The choice of advertising language is a thing related with striking gold because the ultimate goal of an advertisement is to persuade people to buy the goods or embrace the ideas (Cook, 1994, Diez Arroyo, 1998). Advertisement is an embodiment of culture. With the development of the society people nowadays buy more what they believe than the real product. Though image design also matters, language plays a central role. There is a job called "copywriter'; referring to somebody who writes copies for advertisements, in which “copy” means the text of an advertisement.
Advertisements have become part of people's life in modern society as annotated by the following quote:
"'Advertisements are one of the most important culture factors moulding and reflecting our life today. They are ubiquitous, an inevitable part of everyone's lives: even if you do not read a newspaper or watch television, the images posted over our urban surroundings are inescapable.
(Wflliamson, 1978, p. 11)
We have been accustomed to seeing advertisements. Living in the Information Age, we find advertisements almost everywhere and at every moment. However, anything which occurs often enough will not easily arouse people's curiosity. Advertisements are no exception. To compete for people's attention and to stand out from the crowd, advertisers usually adopt figurative speeches such as similes, metaphors, personification and hyperbole to make advertisements appealing. Figurative speech is a way to convey meaning other than the literal meaning of the words. It is believed that deviant usage of words increases the number of memory ties to the words and hence increases the probability that the consumer recalls the ad. In consideration of the high cost of advertising, the use of figurative speeches in ads is both efficient and economical.
Pun is also called paronomasia, which originates via Latin from Greek paronomasia, in which para- means “"beside” and onomasia means “naming”. Paronomasia literally means "naming beside / alternatively". (Paronomasia, n.d.) It is a form of wordplay created deliberately on the basis of similar sounds or meanings of two words or phrases, or different meanings of the same word or phrase. Puns are frequently employed in advertisements. To comprehend an ad containing puns, one has to make certain amount of cognitive efforts, which brings the pleasure similar to that of playing puzzle games. However, advertising is a one-way form of communication or non-real-time communication where the message receiver cannot immediately respond to the message. In other words, advertising is a monologue instead of a dialogue. Therefore, there may be a thousand ways to interpret a pun. (Djafarova, 2008) Different people may interpret a pun quite differently because they have different backgrounds and sometimes may even deviate from the intended meaning. We believe that ifs unlikely that a pun contained in ads has one thousand interpretations. More often than not, puns contained in ads can be understood easily and naturally by the receivers. However, we do wonder how this happens, i.e. how the receivers understand puns in advertisements.
Though common in life, puns in ads seem to receive insufficient attention in previous studies. There are few researches on the comprehension process of puns in ads, especially puns in Chinese ads. Hence, the present thesis is devoted to fill the gap to some extent. Besides, it also attempts to investigate the difference between Chinese, an ideographic language, and English, an Indo-European language. We choose both Chinese and English ads containing puns as the data for ana仪sis.
1.2Scope and Purpose
Puns in advertisements have been studied by researchers in different disciplines from different angles and with different methods. The mostly found approaches include rhetoric, semiotics, Relevance Theory and cognitive linguistics. The previous studies address different aspects of puns in ads and together offer valuable guidance for future studies in a comprehensive way. In recent years, the Conceptual Blending Theory which was proposed by Fauconnier and Turner in 1998 gains popularity in the study of puns in ads. It can vividly illustrate the cognitive process of meaning construction. However, there exist some inadequacies in the study of puns in ads from this perspective. First of all, this approach is too sirr^lified for scholars to address details involved in cognitive operation. The contextual factors that can constrain the effects of ads either are overlooked or only receive a rough treatment (Tendahl & Gibbs, 2008). In consideration of these, some researchers resort to Relevance Theory a theory of communication which lays emphasis on context. Given that advertising is an effective means of communication between consumers and product providers, the study of it should never ignore the context. Context is na frame that surrounds the event and provides resources for its appropriate interpretation n(Goodwin, 1992). It can refer to the physical environment where the communication happens or the cognitive environment of people involved. Hence, in order to provide a more comprehensive e^lanation for puns in ads, this paper adopts an integrated approach to elaborate on the comprehension process of puns in ads, derived from Relevance Theory and Conceptual Blending Theory.
We choose both Chinese and English commercial insurance advertisements containing puns as the data to be analyzed. The insurance market is a massive, chaotic marketplace both at home and abroad. Very often, people are bombarded by commercial insurance ads. There are so many brands of insurance and so many choices of similar insurance products that a person may be paralyzed when he or she wants to purchase. Although it turns out that too much information is a lot like no information, insurance companies believe that it pays to advertise so much. In view of the fierce competition, an insurer strives to be the first brand customers would think of when they make a purchase decision. Therefore, the profusion of commercial insurance ads will continue to exist. Insurance companies advertising campaigns from time to time and also devote themselves to the elaboration of language by using punning or other figurative speeches to draw peopled attention and to cut through the clutter. Ifs a pity that there is no existing corpus of commercial insurance ads and so we have to collect the data by ourselves. In this way, the data may be not objective enough. Besides, the number of the commercial insurance ads we collect is limited and therefore the results may not be convincing enough.
1.3Significance of the Study
Pun plays a significant role in ads and directly influences peopled impression on a brand or company. This study not only studies puns in commercial insurance ads from the cognitive-pragmatic perspective and also surveys the usage of puns in both Chinese and English ads. This section will introduce the theoretical significance as well as the practical significance of the present study respectively.
1.3.1Theoretical Significance
The present study attempts to investigate puns in ads by employing a comprehensive approach by integrating Relevance Theory with Conceptual Blending Theory. This is hardly found among previous studies, which only adopt a single approach such as semiotics, pragmatics or cognitive linguistics. Cognitive linguistics and relevance theory are complementary on analyzing the comprehension process of puns in ads. Both theories offer important insights into the role of pun in cognition and language use. This thesis may shed some light on future related studies.
1.3.2Practical Significance
Since the ads analyzed in this thesis are all commercial insurance ads, this thesis may help advertisers especially commercial insurance advertisers better understand how an advertisement is interpreted and gain enlightenment on advertising in future. Insurance is a special goods quite different from other consumer goods in that it plays a key role in mitigation of risks and is thus of great significance. It contributes to the general economic growth of the society by providing stability to the functioning of process. So fer, few studies on puns in ads have concerned commercial insurance industry.
Besides, this study may fecilitate people's understanding of Chinese culture and English culture because it is devoted to comparing the usage of puns in both Chinese and English ads. Chinese, as an ideographic language, is quite different from Englis扎 an Indo-European language. It is known that language and culture are closely related and people use language to maintain and convey culture and cultural ties. This thesis reveal the difference between language use habits of Chinese and English to some extent.
1.4Research Methods
In order to achieve research purpose, both quantitative and qualitative methods are employed in the present study. The quantitative method is used to describe different types of puns which can be found in the analyzed Chinese and English commercial insurance advertisements. The qualitative method is employed to make a comparison between the similarities and differences of puns used in the analyzed Chinese and English ads, and to explore a unified account of the comprehension process of puns in ads. In addition, the qualitative part will be paid more attention to than the quantitative part.
1.5Structure of the Study
This thesis is corr^osed of five chapters.
Chapter One introduces the general research background, and also presents scope and purpose, significance, research methods, and layout of the present study.
Chapter Two gives a review on previous studies concerning puns from different perspectives such as semiotics, Relevance Theory and cognitive linguistics. This chapter also point out the inadequacies of those studies and illustrate the significance of adopting a cognitive-pragmatic approach based on Relevance Theory and Conceptual Blending Theory.
Chapter Three makes a detailed explanation of the theoretical framework part of this thesis. Some key notions of Relevance Theory and Conceptual Blending Theory are presented. Then an integrated approach based on the two theories to analyze puns in ads is introduced and justified by reviewing the previous studies which compares the similarities and complementarity of the two theories. Third, research methodology is mentioned, including data collection (sample size, data sources, etc.) and identification, and data ana仪sis.
Chapter Four consists of quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis of the study. The former describes the frequencies of each type of puns in the analyzed ads through an analysis of data. The latter analyzes the comprehension process of puns in ads by employing a cognitive-pragmatic approach based on Relevance Theory and Conceptual Blending Theory. It also specifies in details the similarities as well as differences between Chinese and English puns in the analyzed ads. Moreover, this chapter presents the results of each kind of analysis and further discusses the significant fectors to consider when interpreting the framework.
Chapter Five makes a summary of the major findings of the present study, and meanwhile indicates the limitations of the study and implications for future studies.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1Introduction
This chapter will make an overall review of the background knowledge of pun and previous studies on puns in ads. The first part will introduce the working definition, classification and functions of pun. And the second part will review previous studies on puns in ads from different perspectives such as rhetoric, Relevance Theory and cognitive linguistics.
2.2An Overview of Pun
This section will introduce the working definition of pun, the classification of pun, and the functions of pun in advertising one by one. These are the prerequisites for the literature review part in this thesis.
2.2.1Working Definition of Pun
Pun, as a form of wordplay, refers to "the usually humorous use of a word in such away as to suggest two or more of its meanings or the meaning of another word similar in sound" (Encyclopaedia Brittanica). It is a rhetorical device that often creates humorous effects depending upon the ambiguities the words entail. The ambiguities arise mostly in homophones and homonyms.
The corresponding word of pun in Chinese is “shuangguan". However, Ushuang Guan^^ does not equal to pun, despite the feet that they do have a lot in common. According to Ci Hai, an encyclopedic dictionary of Chinese first published in 1915 and frequently revised, “shuangguan" refers to a word or phrase containing two meanings simultaneously.
For the sake of research, we extend the meaning of Chinese "shuangguan” and regard it as the equivalent of English pun in this thesis.

2.2.2Classification of Pun
Puns can be classified in many different ways. In previous studies, many scholars have tried to categorize puns into different types. However, it seems that it is difficult to classify puns and so fer there is hardly a comprehensive or satis fee tory list of types of puns. Among all the existing classifications, the one put forward by Nash (1985, pp. 138-46) is the most detailed, as summarized in the following figure:
Table 2.1 Nash's (1985) Classification of Puns
Category Definition Example
Homophones Pairs of words with the same We've poured throughout her reign
sound but different meanings (rain).
distinguished by distinctive
spelling.
Mimes Pairs of words with phonetic -What do cats read?
similitudes, usually rhymes -The Mews (news) of the world.
Homonyms Pairs of words which are Bank
pronounced or spelled the same (a) River side
way but have different (b) Financial institute
meanings.
Contacts and Blends Some turns of phrase echo other Read around "read superficially^^
idioms and take a color of from sleep around "s leep with
meaning from them. partners without emotional
commitmenf,
Pseudomorphs Refers to non-existing If feasible, lefs fease it.
combination of morphemes or a
false segmentation.
Portmanteau puns A label for the coinage that Mimsy is composed of "flimsy" and
packs two meanings into one “miserable"
word, such as blend.
Etymological puns A pun produced in terms of the Nero made Rome the focus (fireplace
etymology of words. in Latin) of his artistic attention
Bilingual puns A foreign word made to bear the e zhan kuai pei "e 站快赔"(the sense of another language with lowercase English letter "e” and similar sound. Chinese word yi 一 pronounce
similarly, and the caption can be interpreted as "get compensated immediately at one location^^ or "get compensated immediately on our website/app^^)
However, it seems that the above classification does not apply to the present study. First, Nash only elaborates on English puns and thus some of the categories cannot be found in Chinese. For example, there is no pseudomorphs in Chinese for Chinese is an ideographic language; as for etymological puns, they may be found in Chinese literature but hardly appear in ads; and portmanteau puns as well as contacts and blends seem to wander from the essence of puns of sounding or being spelled the same or at least similarly. Next, we can combine homophones, mimes, and bilingual puns into one single category called "homophonic puns” in that the three kinds of puns are proposed on the basis of identical or similar pronunciations. In addition, the category "homonyms” is not suitable for Chinese puns because it does not take Chinese heteronym-based puns into account. Two words are heteronyms if they are identical in graph but differ in pronunciation. In this case, we'd better replace the category "homonyms” with "homographic puns” to account for both English and Chinese puns. To summarize, we simply classify puns into three types in this thesis: (a) homophonic puns, (b) homographic puns, and (c) complex puns.
2.2.3Functions of Pun in Advertising
There has been a lot of controversy over the status of pun in advertising. Some advertisers agree that pun is "one of the lowest form of wit” (Rogers, 1999) and holds that it is out of date to pun in adverts. For example, in his autobiography My Life in Advertising. Claude C. Hopkins, inventor of test marketing and coupon sampling, mentioned: "Frivolity has no place in advertising. Nor has humor. Spending money is usually serious business... People do not buy from c low ns.? (Red fern, 1982, p. 269) However, Redfern suggests that a possible explanation for the advertisers,contempt for puns is that many puns are untranslatable and hence hinders marketing campaigns over different countries. (Redfern, 1984)
It is believed that pun in advertising is very useful instead of being useless and disdained as some people hold. Pun, though at times considered as trite or silly, if used responsibly, "...can be an effective communication tool in a variety of situations and forms^ (Junker, 2013, p. 18). For example, Sherzer addresses that today puns are "most often considered to be humorous in intention, inappropriate for serious discourse but highly appropriate for advertising9 (Sherzer, 1985, p. 215).William Safire, columnist of the New York Times, holds that a head line-writers need to catch the readers, attention quickly and thus they are becoming more and more fond of using paranomasia, which make them able to tolerate this long-despised form of humor (Safire, 1980). Generally speaking, puns in ads can help advertisers save space and meanwhile draw customers, attention, making people dwell on the topic.
Besides, Redfern believes in the usefuhess of puns in ads: "Advertising space is costly. Economy is essential, and puns are highly economical (two meanings for the price of one word or phrase), and are in fact much more of a labour-saving device than many of the products they seek to promote.(Redfern, 1984, p. 131) For advertisers, it is very economical to employ puns in ads.
In addition, like Redfern, McQuarrie and Mick recognize that as a form of figurative, pun is respectable (McQuarrie & Mick, 1996). They even say that as one of the more complex forms of rhetoric, pun is intentionally created by advertisers through certain contexts they construct so that its ambiguity would arise in the audience's mind, thus leaving the audience to make extra efforts to guess until they figure out the intended meaning. In this case, more rhetorical effects would also be achieved, and meanwhile the audience would be impressed and persuaded. In other words, pun serves as a persuasive instrument for an addresser.
In summary pun has three main functions in advertising: draw attention and make people dwell on the topic, save space or cost, and intensify rhetorical effects to strengthen the power of persuasion.
2.3Previous Studies on Pun
Pun has been studied by many scholars from a wide variety of fields. Among all the previous studies concerning puns, those from the perspectives of semiotics and 
linguistics are particularly worthy of concern. We can benefit a lot from these studies. This chapter will make a brief review of the studies on puns in the fields of semiotics and linguistics.
2.3.1A rhetoric approach
Rhetoric is the art of discourse. It aims to study the capability of writers or speakers needed "to inform, most likely to persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations^, (Corbett, 1990, p. 1). It plays a key role in the European tradition in training wordsmiths (Conley 1991). Pun, as a rhetorical device, has a long history in human writing and has been studied from the perspective of rhetoric for a long time.
For a long time, punning has had a tough time. Puns were categorized within wordplay which was included in humor, despite the fact that a pun does not have to be funny (Redfern, 2014). There was once not a single special book on puns, except Redfern^ (1984) work which devotes a chapter. Pun has been denigrated as a poor relation within the femily of humorous modes. Besides, Saussure (Saussure, 1983) also suggests that the use of pun should not be encouraged. In his most influential book Course in General Linguistics, he writes that for each signifier there is a signified, i.e. the object or concept to which the signifier refers; the signifier and the signified is related with each other through signification and are inseparable with each triggering the other. The relationship between the signifier and the signified is arbitrary. In another word, there is no logical connection between them. However, a pun has two signifieds, which overturns the assumption made by Saussure that one signifier only has one signified. Saussure holds that pun undermines communicative efficacy.
Many rhetoricians speak in dense of pun. The Greek philosopher Aristotle evaluates pun objectively. He notices that different from daily expressions that are more often than not normative, familiar and straightforward, pun has 'ambiguity, polysemy, and frequently metaphor all within a single word" (Bates, 1999, p. 425). In another word, the philosopher thinks that pun is literary. Redfern even considers punning as “a whole way of feeling, seeing, thinking and expressing,5 (Redfern, 1984, p. 178). He has always been vigorously defending for pun. He holds that punning is by no means inferior to other rhetorical devices and deserves to be treated the same as metaphor and irony. In addition, McQuarrie and Mick argues that puns 'surprise and entertain, expressing multiple meanings with a single word of phrase" (1992, p. 180). They (1996) further affirm the importance of puns in advertisements as a figure of speech in their work Figures of Rhetoric in Advertising Language. Like McQuarrie and Mick, Sherzer (2002) agrees that puns are appropriate for advertisements.
Different from English puns, the status of puns in Chinese has been high. Chinese scholars generally regard pun as a quite effective and useful rhetoric. Rhetoricians like Chen Wangdao (1979), Ni Baoyuan (1980), and Wang Xijie (1993) all have elaborated on puns. For example, Ni Baoyuan (1980, pp. 267-269) introduces a variety of rhetorical functions of pun in details. He holds that the use of pun contributes to the conciseness of language, which can save space as well as money and hence is very economical. He also claims that the use of pun may amuse people or attack people implicitly. In addition, he believes in the indispensable functions of the use of pun in literature such as portraying characters.
In summary studies on puns from the perspective of rhetoric mainly focus on two aspects: significance and functions of puns. There has been a profusion of such studies. The following part will try to specify the interpretation process of pun from a dynamic perspective by adopting linguistic approaches.
2.3.2A relevance-theoretic approach
Scholars such as Tanaka (1992, 1994), Yus (2003) and M. Mulken (2005) claim that Relevance Theory provides a better account of puns. Each of them has made a contribution from their own perspective to justify their arguments.
Tanaka (1992, 1994) specially investigates puns in advertisements and attempts to analyze puns in ads comprehensively by adopting Relevance Theory. Her study not only sketches an analysis in terms of Relevance Theory but also examines Redfern^ claim of the economy of using puns in ads (Tanaka, 1992). According to Tanaka, puns in ads can be divided into two groups based on the number of interpretations a communicator intentionally convey: one group refers to puns conveying two interpretations, and the other group refers to puns conveying only one interpretation with the other uncommunicated. This can be e^lained by distinctions between optimal relevance and maximum relevance.
Atypical example adopted by Tanaka is "Less bread. No jam". This is an ad for London Transport. For the first ad, at first glance, one may think it is about food and becomes confused. But according to Relevance Theory one would quickly reject this interpretation because it obviously contradicts with the principle of relevance. Then, ifs easy for the audience to understand jam as "traffic jam^^ and bread as “money” because tube (underground) fees in London have always been quite e^ensive. Eventually, one gets the accurate meaning of the ad: low cost and no traffic jam. The more processing efforts are in feet desired by the advertiser because in this way the recipient may dwell on the ad and remember it for a long time (Diez Arroyo, 1998). Tanaka concludes that ads containing puns always achieve optimal relevance suggested in Relevance Theory.
Though Tanaka successfully e冯Tains the comprehension process of puns in ads within the framework of Relevance Theory, there are some flaws in her work. On one hand, Tanaka treats different types of puns such as homographs and homophones equally and doesn't pay attention to the difference between them. On the other hand, Tanaka4 s argument seem contradictory when she attempts to explain different types of puns. For example, she puts forward that if a recipient finds the first accessible interpretation inappropriate, he would reject it, which probably means that the recipient may stop interpreting the ad if the first accessible interpretation is appropriate. However, this argument doesn't support her account for another example "The perfect car for a long drive ", in which two communicated meanings of "the perfect car for a long car ride,5 and a4the perfect car for people who have a long driveway^^ are both intended.
Like Tanaka, Yus (2003) also adopts relevance theory to analyze puns and focuses on explaining how humorous interpretations are produced. He holds that if the first accessed interpretation provides an optimal balance of interest, cognitive effects, and mental effort, it is the one selected, and the recipient will stop interpreting to this point. Yus makes a bold attempt to classify different puns into four types mainly on the basis of the differences in computing three variables: contextual effects, cognitive efforts, and context accessibility. The four types put forward by Yus are as follows: First, "the utterance yields two propositions with similar balance of effects and effort The hearer, unable to choose one candidate as consistent with the principle of relevance, moves back and forth entertaining both humorously99 (Yus, 2003, p. 1321). Second, "a first accessible interpretation is reached for the whole text; this could have been chosen as the intended interpretation, but the hearer searches for an alternative interpretation instead^^ (Yus, 2003, p. 1321). Another two types of puns that Yus classifies are rare.
Yus' research has many limitations and is vutoerable to criticism. First of all, his taxonomy is far from comprehensive. Nor is it uniform or standard. Next, the three variables — contextual effects, cognitive effort, and context accessibility that Yus adopts are quite subjective. They cannot be regulated and are thus difficult to be computed. However, Yus' research does contribute to fiirther research.
Mulken (2005) also investigates puns in ads based on relevance theory. Different from Tanaka and Yus, she adopts quantitative methods and conducts an e^eriment in which 68 participants are invited to appreciate 24 slogans and then assess their appreciation. Her research is based on the categorization of Yus\ but only adopts the former two kinds of puns because she thinks the other two are absurd. Also, Mulken doesn't take homophones into consideration and therefore makes no illustration of them. Mulken^ e?q)eriment aims to answer two research questions: first, whether an ad containing a pun is usually more popular than an ad without a pun; second, whether an ad containing a pun with two related meanings is more popular than an ad containing a pun with only one related meaning. The results of her experiment show that the presence ofa pun in an ad significantly affect whether the ad is appreciated by a respondent or not. The answer to the first question is yes and the answer to the second question is no. However, the respondents consider an ad containing a pun with two relevant meanings as a better choice than an ad containing a pun with only one relevant meaning.
In summary Relevance Theory is powerful in explaining the comprehension process of puns in ads from a dynamic perspective. However, it is not vivid enough because there9s no demonstration of the whole detailed interpretation. Next part will introduce studies on puns in ads from the perspective of cognitive linguistics.
2.3.3A cognitive approach
Cognitive linguistics is an interdisciplinary branch of linguistics closely related with psychology. It focuses on the study of the relationship between language and mind and can clearly reveal the process of meaning construction of pun in ads. Pun has aroused the interest of many scholars to analyze it from the perspective of cognitive linguistics.
Heller (1974, p. 271) claims that puns may be correlated with conceptual blending. Attrado agrees with Heller: "The structure of the pun holds implications basic to an understanding of many psychological problems and a knowledge of its dynamic processes offers important insights into the nature of reasoning itself^ (Attardo 1994, p. 141). The comprehension of pun is a dynamic, on-line process of meaning construction with cognitive efforts such as reasoning made.
According to Nash's (1985) classification of puns in ads, there is one type of pun called a4pun-metaphors,5. Nash holds that contrary to “precise” poetic metaphors, pun-metap hors are "deliberately sloppy” (1985, p. 146). Pun-metaphors are thought to be common in news languages. Take an instance, Council puts brake on progress of cycle path scheme (1985, p. 146). This example constitutes a metaphorical blend, which is linguistically signaled by the double meanings of the word brake.
Carita Lundmark (2013) also studies puns from the perspective of cognitive linguistics. He agrees with Attardo,s opinion that very likely "analyses of puns in terms of blending might be a concrete manifestation of Heller5s ideas" (1994, p. 141). Lundmark makes an analysis of puns in print ads featuring both visual and verbal elements based on Conceptual Blending Theory and other theories. He finds that puns dependent on activating the generic space in a conventional metaphorical mapping is prone to show a low degree of humour, unless it is demonstrated visually.
The above scholars focus on whether Conceptual Blending Theory is feasible in interpreting puns in ads. However, they do not elaborate on the application of Conceptual Blending Theory in the interpretation process. So fir there are still few studies concerning the application of CBT in the interpretation of puns in ad.
2.4 Summary
This chapter introduces the working definition of pun, its classification and functions in advertisements. Besides, this part also reviews previous studies on puns in ads from the perspectives of rhetoric, Relevance Theory and cognitive linguistics. The following chapter will introduces the theoretical frameworks used in this study.
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework and Research
Methodology
3.1Introduction
The present study will apply two theories to analyze puns used in commercial insurance advertising. One theory is Relevance Theory and the other is Conceptual Blending Theory (CBT). In this chapter, each theory will be introduced briefly. Then, the practicability of combining the two theories to investigate puns in advertisements will be discussed.
3.2Relevance Theory
Relevance Theory (RT) is proposed by cognitive scientists Dan Sperber and Deidre Wilson in their book Relevance: Communication and Cognition in 1986. It is a theoretical framework for understanding utterance interpretation and seeks to explain the kind of communication that takes implicit inferences into account.
3.2.1Os tensive-Inferential Communication
Relevance Theory views communication as an ostensive-inferential process. In another word, communication is overt, is mutually manifest to both communicator and audience, and can be implicit. According to Relevance Theory, ostensive stimulus is an overt act by the communicator "designed to attract an audience's attention and focus it on the communicator^ meaning5, (1986, p. 611). In ostensive-inferential communication, the communicator produces an utterance or another ostensive stimulus with the following two intentions: the informative intention and the communicative intention. The former intention is to inform the audience of something, and the latter one is to inform the audience of one's informative intention. For example, the communicator produces an ostensive stimulus that creates a presumption of optimal relevance, and the audience infers the communicator^ intention according to the ostensive behavior of the communicator. Ostension and inference is one process happening simultaneously, but seen from different perspectives. The communicator produces an ostensive stimulus which makes a group of assumptions manifest to the audience. For example, if you look at your watch frequently at a party you are actually informing your partner that you want to leave. However, your partner perhaps feil to see what you mean if he is not beside you because in this case the stimulus is not ostensive. (Melanie Green, 2006)
3.2.2Definition of Relevance
Relevance is a property of information. Since we^e surrounded by large amounts of information every day how can we distinguish which information worth our attention? Generally speaking, we tend to focus on the information that is most relevant to us and that we process effortlessly. Sperber and Wilson defines relevance as a cost-benefit notion: “...the trade-off in within the cognitive system of an individual, who must balance his or her own cognitive payoff against the cognitive cost of attaining it” (Birner, 2013, p. 95). Here the “cost” stands for processing effort emended and “benefit” means cognitive effects gained.
A variety of issues can influence the difficulty of information processing. Factors that reduce processing effort include how frequently a word is used, how recently a word has been uttered, etc. Factors that increase processing effort include mounted logical or linguistic complexity of a particular construction. Sperber and Wilson (1986) hold that people process information to gain cognitive effects. They also put forward three ways that can help achieve cognitive effects: by providing more evidence to strengthen an existing assumption, by presenting evidence to contradict an existing assumption, and by combining with an existing assumption in order to provide an implication.
In summary relevance is an attribute of the input to the cognitive process. It is defined according to cognitive effects obtained and the processing efforts expended: given that the other conditions are the same, the more positive cognitive effects obtained, and meanwhile the less processing efforts expended, the greater the relevance of the input to the individual who handles it.
3.2.3Principles of Relevance
According to Relevance Theory the basic characteristics of human communication and cognition is the search for relevance.
In terms of cognition, Relevance Theory assumes that the cognitive system of human beings is geared to seek for information that is most relevant to them and at the same time utilizes existing cognitive resources (i.e. mentally-represented assumptions) efficiently. The two things (relevant information and existing cognitive resources) combine with each other to yield positive cognitive effects such as true implications, strengthenings or contradictions of existing assumptions.
The feature of searching for relevance by human cognitive system is believed to evolve from the tendency toward greater efficiency in cognition, and lays a foundation for the Communicative Principle of Relevance. Since a listener will only look out to stimuli that are relevant enough, by overtly displaying an intention to inform, a speaker should make the communicative stimulus relevant enough to draw the listener's attention. Only when the listener assume that the stimulus is worth processing and compatible with his abilities or preferences will he pay attention to it.
The main principles of relevance are as follows:
Cognitive Principle of Relevance:
"Human cognition tends to be geared to the maximization of relevance(Wilson & Sperber, 2002: 254)
Communicative Principle of Relevance:
“Every act of overt communication communicates a presumption of its own optimal relevance^^. (Wilson & Sperber, 2002: 256).
Optimal relevance:
“ a) The ostensive stimulus is relevant enough for it to be worth the addressee^ eflfort to process it.
b) The ostensive stimulus is the most relevant one compatible with the communicator abilities and preferences^^ (Sperber & Wilson, 2001: 270).
In Summary Relevance Theory views human communication as an ostensive-inferential process. It claims that there is a wide gap between the coded sentence meaning and the inferred speaker^ meaning, which has to be filled inferentially. And human beings are endowed with a biologically rooted ability to maximize the relevance of incoming stimuli.
3.3Conceptual Blending Theory
Conceptual Blending Theory (CBT) is a theory of cognition developed by cognitive scientists Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner. It is also known as Conceptual Integration Theory (CIT) or Conceptual Integration Network (CIN). This theory was first proposed in 1993 and was later presented in Fauconnier and Turner 9s 2002 book The Way We Think. It is based on the two traditions within cognitive semantics: Mental Spaces Theory and Conceptual Metaphor Theory. CBT makes up the inadequacies of the above two theories and thus can account for phenomena that they cannot.
Conceptual Blending Theory excels in handling the connection of two concepts that have inconsistency such as metaphor and pun. It shows how we can see similarities, but also recognize the differences between the domains to understand a new experience. Besides, it also works well in clearly illustrating the comprehension process of human beings (Fauconnier 1997, Turner 1996, Fauconnier & Turner 1998, 2002). It is a theory of knowledge creation.
The core of Conceptual Blending Theory is the introduction of logical connectors to connect mental objects, which means the sum of what has been perceived, discovered, or learned by an individual. In CBT, mental objects specifically refer to the meaning items that occur in discourse. With logical connectors, mental representation constructions which integrate mental objects into larger units of meaning begin to develop together with their corresponding linguistic processes. The larger meaning units are called "mental spaces” The inner components of any mental space can change over time and may interact with any other mental space to construct a new space. This process is called "blending”. Fauconnier and Turner claims that blending "...is dynamic, supple and active in the moment of thinking. It yields products that frequently become entrenched in conceptual structure and grammar, and it often performs new work on its previously entrenched products as inputs" (Fauconnier & Turner, 1998, p. 133). The on-line, dynamic network model is shown in the following figure:
G iet tc Space



Figure 3.1 Conceptual Integration Networks (Fauconnier & Turner, 1998)
The four circles in conceptual integration networks stand for four mental spaces including two input spaces (Input Space 1 and Input Space2), one Generic Space and one Blend Space, all of which are constructed in different ways. During a conversation, a lot of input spaces are being constructed, and they include partial mental representation of entities and relationships in any given situation as perceived, imagined, remembered, or understood by an addresser. In the above figure, the square represents the emergent structure. The points within the mental space circles represent elements. The solid lines stands for counterpart connections or the intuitive mapping relations between elements in two input spaces. The dotted lines represent the abstract, associative relations between elements in different mental spaces. And the projection which the solid lines and the dotted lines reflect is called cross-space mapping.
The integration starts when any partial counterpart connection happens between the input spaces (here the Inputl Space and Input2 Space). Then, the common concepts that the two spaces share will form a Generic Space. Besides, the two input spaces will also generate a third space called Blend Space. This new space will maintain partial structure from the two input spaces and add emergent structure of its own. The emergent structure is not provided by the inputs and happens in the following three ways: a) composition; b) completion; and c) elaboration.
3.4Integration of RT and CBT: An Integrated Model CBR
This thesis attempts to integrate Relevance Theory with Conceptual Blending Theory to interpret puns in advertisements. Previous scholars have made efforts to compare and combine both theories, and some have tried to integrate the two theories to interpret metaphors. For example, Jiang Yong and Ma Yulei (2003) claims that the two theories are complementary because they have common grounds. Tendal and Gibbs (2008) also argue that Relevance Theory and Conceptual Blending Theory provide complementary perspectives on the interpretation of metaphor. Wang Wenbin and Lin Bo (2003) discusses the complementarity of the two theories from the perspective of humor and proposes a cognitive-pragmatic working model based on the integration of the two theories. Fang Biyue and Zhang Zhijiang (2007) has a discussion with Wang Wenbin and Lin Bo's and makes improvements to their model.
3.4.1Similarities
According to Jiang Yong and Ma Yulei (2003), Conceptual Blending Theory and Relevance Theory are advanced on the basis of similar language philosophy. They share two similarities: First, both of they adhere to the principle of economy in utterance interpretation. Second, both of them lay emphasis on conceptual blending in online meaning construction.
Principle of econon^ in utterance interpretation
Both Sperber and Wilson and Fauconnier holds that language form is very simplified, and one linguistic form may be appropriate for various situations. To figure out what an utterance means, people only need to select from different interpretations the one that is most relevant to a certain context. Speakers tend to adopt the most economic strategy to convey his or her intended meaning in speech acts. In other words, they make the minimum coding efforts to convey the maximum amount of information. In this case, however, a conceptual structure is unlikely to be fully represented in an ostensive semantic structure. In the sentence “The audience laughed the poor actor off the stage'; the semantic structure can only represent part of the conceptual structure. The complete conceptual structure of this sentence is “The audience laughed the poor actor, and caused him to move off the stage”. Part of the conceptual structure is left out, including the concept of the causative verb "caused” and the concept that the passive object moves. However, this would not keep one from understanding this utterance, for one usually would trigger more concepts than is represented in speaking and listening. The hearer would make inferences on the basis of the shared communicative intention with the least decoding effort in expectation of optimal relevance. In brief under the pressure of relevance, interlocutors would take least-eflfort strategy to yield the greatest cognitive effect.
Conceptual blending in online meaning construction
Both Relevance Theory and Conceptual Blending Theory lay emphasis on conceptual blending in online meaning construction. They also underline the important role that working memory plays in conceptual blending as well as information processing. Fauconnier and Turner holds that conceptual blending is a dynamic, online process, which cannot be presented statistically (Turner & Fauconnier, 2000, p. 141). Semantic meaning relies on an individuaFs abilities of cognitive association, or of cross-space projection and Conceptual Blending. According to Relevance Theory utterance interpretation is a decoding process as well as an inference process, involving the following four steps: a) identifying the coding information; b) activating the contextual assumptions; c) matching the coding information with the contextual assumptions; 4) drawing an inference. Sperber and Wilson (1995) holds that utterance meaning is achieved by clarifying the association and complex operations between the ostensive information and the physical context as well as and contextual context.
3.4.2Complementarities
Jia Yong and Ma Yulei (2003) claims that the deficiencies of Relevance Theory can be complemented by Conceptual Blending Theory. First, Relevance Theory only provides the general principle of pragmatic reasoning without illustrating conceptual mapping and blending. It still can only e 科 la in abstract principles and laws of pragmatic reasoning, and is unable to specifically analyze concept aggregation. Nor is it adept at analyzing long discourse. However, Conceptual Blending Theory analyzes the process of meaning construction and discusses reasoning much more thoroughly than Relevance Theory does. Fauconnier and Turner divide meaning blending into three types: composition, elaboration and completion, each of which provides possibilities for generating new conceptual structures (Fauconnier & Turner, 1998, pp. 133-87). With conceptual mapping and blending of multiple mental spaces, Conceptual Blending Theory specifically analyzes the procedures of pragmatic inference, which provides an effective way for the formal and visual operation of Relevance Theory. In addition, Conceptual Blending Theory can also e?q)lain the comprehension process of phrases, sentences and discourses of different types very well. Second, Relevance Theory mainly illustrate the pragmatic inference process of the hearer and seldom explores speech strategies adopted by the speaker. Conceptual Blending Theory can make up this deficiency of RT.
According to Jia Yong and Ma Yulei (2003), the deficiencies of CBT can also be complemented by RT. If we discuss the cross-space conceptual blending through the blending of several explicit input spaces provided by ostensive utterance, the interpretation model of CBT can only account for individual utterance cases and cannot apply to all utterances. Though Fauconnier and Turner list a lot of examples, the blending of several explicit input spaces scarcely occurs. CBT is partially explanatory while RT is universally applicable. To explain conceptual blending in online meaning construction by using CBX it's necessary to include it into RT to view inference from the perspective of the blending of information from both e 科 licit space and implicit space.
In general, RT and CBT are complementary. The combination ofRT and CBT can provide a new model which have strong power in interpreting dynamic meaning construction.
3.4.3An Integrated Model CBR
According to RX relevance and context are of great significance in the audience 5s comprehension process of an ad. Sperber and Wilson claim that communication is an ostensive-inferential process. From the perspective of the audience, he or she will make an inference of the speaker 9s intention according to the ostensive behavior of the speaker. During this process, in conformity to the principle of optimal relevance, the audience tends to pay attention to information that are most relevant to him or her so that he or she can process effortlessly. And the audience also tends to take care of information that he or she prefers or thafs compatible with his or her abilities if the kind of information is relevant enough. Generally speaking, the audience will subconsciously make a cost-benefit analysis in her mind to ensure that she can gain the most while making the least processing efforts. RT provides contextual constraints for CBT. In other words, Relevance Theory takes into account the audience of an ad and the particular setting in which an ad occurs. Relevance interplays with the other
governing principles of Conceptual Blending, which contributes to answering the determination of the content of any given mental space.
Based on the above discussion, we propose an integrated model called CBR to interpret the comprehension process of puns in advertisements, which is illustrated in the figure below:


In this model, in addition to the four spaces, we put 'Relevance” into Generic Space and “context” in the middle of the figure, respectively. Since we add no space, we adopt a dotted circle to distinguish from and dotted lines to integrate the four spaces. When one meets an ad containing a pun, he or she would be drawn by the pun. The pun is an ostensive stimulus. To understand the ad, the person would first seek relevance and easily recognize the literal meaning of the pun, which more often than not is inappropriate. Then, he or she would have to seek relevance again in order to get another meaning of the pun. Hence, we put the two meanings of the pun in Input Space 1 and Input Space 2 respectively. The dotted lines mean that the elements in the inputs map onto each other. The two input spaces share relevance in common. Third, the audience would blend different meanings of the pun in the blend space and figure out the intended meaning in the emergent structure. Throughout the comprehension process, the audience has to make inferences based on the context. This is why we put it in the dotted circle in the middle with dotted lines connected to the four spaces. Context is intimately related with relevance.
3.5Methodology
After introducing the theoretical framework CBR model, this part will explicate research methodology. First, it will introduce data collection and identification, which means how the analyzed ads containing puns were collected and identified. Next, it goes on to explain how the data is analyzed within the theoretical framework of CBR.
3.5.1Data Collection and Identification
3.5.1.1Data Collection
According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary online, advertisement is defined as "a public notice, especially one published in the press or broadcast over the air^ (Advertisement, n.d.). It includes slogan, tagline, and motto. Nowadays ads are almost everywhere. Some are printed on newspapers, magazines and handouts; some are displayed on billboards in metro stations; some are shown on TV at intervals between TV programs; some are broadcasted in radio; some appear on web pages or apps. The ads appearing on different types of media differ in forms to some extent. For example, the TV ads contain not only words and images, but also sound. Commercial ads promote all kinds of goods, varying from biscuits to real estates. Goods are materials that satisfy human wants and provide utility to a consumer making a purchase of a satisfying product. Generally speaking, there are two kinds of goods: tangible goods, referring to physical objects and intangible goods, referring to services such as insurance.
The ads investigated in this research are all commercial insurance ads in the form of text from various sources, including newspapers, magazines, handouts, webpages (mainly official websites of insurance companies), apps, billboards, etc. We paid attention to this kind of intangible goods in that there are a great many of commercial insurance ads, in which puns are not uncommonly used. For example, one of the top commercial insurance companies in China is called Ping An, which means “safety” in Chinese. Besides, due to the specialty of the insurance industry insurance advertising focuses on building up credibility. Insurance ads are supposed to show stability and honesty to indicate strong support and therefore cannot be too vivacious. For example, cartoons and comedies are not suitable in insurance ads. Meanwhile, insurance ads need to highlight the unique benefit it could provide and make the benefit the main content. In addition, the presentation of insurance ad should be unified usually in the form of news. F inally, insurance ads must list the content thafs directly related to the audience's interest such as the compensation in details. However, up to now there has hardly been any research concerning the comprehension process of puns in commercial insurance ads.
The present study chose both Chinese and English commercial insurance ads from various sources due to two major concerns. The first and the most important one is that the ways in which people are exposed to commercial insurance ads are quite different among regions and among generations, especially in China. For example, millennials, which generally refers to the generation of people born between the early 1980s and 1990s according to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary are used to obtaining information from webpages and apps on their phones. However, their parents prefer to get information by reading newspapers, or watching TV or listening to radios. Though ads on billboards in metro stations seem to be able to be seen by every passenger, metro stations only exist in a few cities in China. Therefore, collecting ads from various sources can provide us with a more comprehensive insight because the audience of various ages and from different places may be covered. Secondly, commercial insurance companies keep updating their ads ever few years, and their previous ads usually no longer appear on their official websites or elsewhere. Besides, different companies do not update ads simultaneously. In this case, to ensure the quality of the data, a diachronic study may be required, which takes the previo us ads of these companies into account. Hence, collecting ads from various sources may be more suitable in consideration of representativeness.
The data of present study were collected in the second half of 2018 and the beginning months of 2019. And both Chinese and English ads were collected in order to prove the feasibility of the two theories to explain puns in ads of the two different languages and to make a comparison between the two languages. A total of 400 commercial insurance ads which differ in content were gathered, among which eighty-one ads contain puns.

3.5.1.2 Data Identification
Previous studies indicate several ways of classifying the rhetorical devices used in ads. Leigh (1994) conducts a content analysis of 2,183 print ads with a headline from magazines to investigate the frequency of rhetorical devices used in ad headlines as well as possible influencing fectors. He then elaborately categorizes figures of speech into a total of 41 types. McQuarrie and Mick (1996) also put forward a classification scheme (Figure 4.1). They investigate rhetorical devices present in the ads they investigate, and classify them into a total of 13 types on the basis of classical rhetoric proposed by Leech (1969), Vickers (1989), and Corbett (1990). We think their classification more practical and much easier to follow than Leigh's. Hence, we'll adopt McQuarrie and Mick's categorization in the present study.
All rhetorical figures
(artful deviations)
Scheme
(excess regularity)
Repetition
less COMPLEX
less COMPLEX
Reversal
Substitution
Destabilization
-Rhyme, chime, - Antimelabole
alliteration
L Antithesis -Anaphora, epistrophe, epanalepsisf anadiplosis
L Parison
-Hyperbole
i Ellipsis
-Epanorthosis, rhetorical question
_ Metonym
-Metaphor
-Pun
_ Irony
1- Paradox








Figure 3.3 Taxonomy of Rhetorical Figures in Advertising by McQuarrie and Mick
(1996)
We follow McQuarrie and Mick's classification to investigate the rhetorical figures used in the 400 commercial insurance ads. The result is shown in Table 4.1. One thing to note is that there may be not only one figure of speech contained in a single ad, and therefore the total number of the figures of speech (408) does not equal to the number of the ads we collected (400).

Table 3.1 Summary of the Figures of Speech found in the Analyzed Ads
Rhetorical
figures None Scheme
Repetition Reversal
Rhyme,
Chime,
Alliteration Anophora,
Epistrophe,
Anadiplosis Parison Antimetabole Antithesis
Number 150 12 18 0 10 16
Percentage 36.8% 2.9% 4.4% 0% 2.5% 3.9%
Rhetorical
figures Trope
Substitution Destabilization
ffyperbole Ellipsis Epanorthosis,
Rhetorical question Metonym Metaphor Pun Irony Parad
ox
Number 10 0 14 6 59 81 0 12
Percentage 2.5% 0% 3.4% 1.5% 14.5% 19.9
% 0% 2.9%

In Table 3.1, we can clearly see that pun is the most frequently used figure of speech in our database, and metaphor is the second most frequently used. This result is in accordance with that in Leigh (1994) and McQuarrie and Mick (1996), which accounts for why most scholars focused on the two figures of speeches in the past. In addition, the feet that both Chinese and English advertisers prefer using puns in ads motivates us to conduct this research.
3.5.2Data Analysis
The thesis focuses on the study of puns in Chinese and English commercial insurance ads with both quantitative and qualitative methods. The combination of the two methods can take advantages of both and supplement each other's shortcomings.
The quantitative method is employed to observe information behind the statistics (e.g. which one is the most frequently used type of pun). By counting and co nearing the frequencies of different types of puns, the characteristics of puns occurring in the analyzed commercial insurance ads can be to some extent drawn. Also, similarities and differences between puns in the analyzed Chinese and English ads can be preliminarily found (Leig扎 1994, Ai, 2012). All these lay a foundation for qualitative ana 仪sis.
And qualitative method is applied to account for the comprehension process of puns in the analyzed ads by taking CBR — the integrated model of Relevance Theory and Conceptual Integration Theory as theoretical framework. The qualitative analysis consists of three parts: analysis of homophonic puns, analysis of ho mo graphic puns, and ana仪sis of complex puns.
3.6Summary
This chapter introduces Relevance Theory and Conceptual Blending Theory respectively and also proposes an integrated model '"CBR”. CBR model combines the merits of Relevance Theory and Conceptual Blending Theory and can offer a comprehensive and convincing e?q)lanation for puns in advertisements. . In addition, we also briefly introduce the research methodology of this thesis, including data and data analysis methods. In the following chapter, we will try to explain the comprehension process of puns in ads by applying the CBR model. We claim that the integrated model has strong explanatory power because Relevance Theory provides the main guiding principle for comprehending puns in ads, while Conceptual Integration Theory vividly illustrates the mental cognitive process of comprehending puns in ads with mental space mapping and integration.
Chapter Four Analysis of Puns in Advertisements
4.1Introduction
This chapter consists of two parts: quantitative analysis of puns in ads and qualitative analysis of puns in ads. The combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods can help us achieve a richer and more comprehensive understanding of puns in commercial insurance ads.
4.2Quantitative Analysis of Puns in Ads
The present study investigates a total of four hundred commercial insurance ads. Eighty-one ads contain puns (20.25%). Among the two hundred Chinese ads, fifty contain puns (40%). And among the two hundred English ads, thirty-one contain puns (15.5%). The results are shown in the table below. The incidence of puns in the anafyzed Chinese ads is higher than that in the analyzed English ads.
Table 4.1 Frequency of Puns Occurring in the Analyzed Ads
Language Ads Ads with Puns
Both Number 400 81
Percentage 100% 20.25%
Chinese Number 200 50
Percentage 100% 40%
English Number 200 31
Percentage 100% 15.5%

In this thesis, a homographic pun is defined as one word or phrase with different meanings. A homophonic pun is defined as two words or phrases with the same or similar pronunciations. And a complex pun is a combination of at least two categories of puns. Usually an ad contain one pun, excluding complex puns which are made up ofboth homophonic puns and homographic puns. The frequency of each type of pun in the analyzed ads is shown below.
Table 4.2 Summary of Categorization of Puns in the Analyzed Ads
Category Homographic Homophonic Complex Total
Number 62 18 1 81
Percentage 76.54% 22.22% 1.23% 100%

This table indicates that among the eighty-one analyzed Chinese and English commercial insurance ads containing puns, sixty-two puns fell into the category “homographic puns'; accounting for the largest proportion of the data. And eighteen puns fell into the category "homophonic puns'; accounting for the second largest proportion. In addition, only one pun fell in the category “complex puns”. This is because a complex pun is made up of a homo graphic pun and a homophonic pun, both of which contribute to the meaning of an ad.
Table 4.3 Summary of Categorization of Chinese Puns in the Analyzed Ads
Category of
Chinese Puns Homographic Homophonic Complex Total
Number 32 17 1 50
Percentage 64% 34% 2% 100%

This table indicates that among the fifty analyzed Chinese commercial insurance ads containing puns, thirty-two puns fell into the category "homographic puns'; accounting for the largest proportion. And seventeen puns fell into the category "homophonic puns'; accounting for the second largest proportion, which is a little bit surprising because homophonic puns are usually considered to be the frequently occurred pun in Chinese ads. Moreover, only one pun fell in the category "complex puns” due to its demanding constructive conditions.
Table 4.4 Summary of Categorization of English Puns in the Analyzed Ads
Category of
English Puns Homographic Homophonic Complex Total
Number 30 1 0 31
Percentage 96.77% 3.23% 0% 100%

This table indicates that among the thirty-one analyzed English commercial insurance ads containing puns, thirty puns fell into the category uhomo graphic puns'; accounting for the largest proportion. And only one pun fell into the category "homophonic puns". Moreover, no pun fell in the category "complex puns".
From the above three tables, we find that both ho mo graphic puns and homophonic puns are frequently used in the analyzed commercial insurance ads of both languages.
Besides, homo graphic puns occur much more often than homophonic puns. This may be related with the specialty of commercial insurance ads. Commercial insurance is a special goods because it is to mitigate loss. Hence, commercial insurance ads should be serious and professional and had better not be fbnny or people will think it non-empathetic and absurd. However, many previous studies have shown that homophonic puns are often applied in literary work, funny stories or ads to achieve humorous or ironical effects.
Moreover, homophonic puns are used much more frequently in the analyzed Chinese ads than in the analyzed English ads. The reason may be that compared with Englis扎 Chinese is a language of “high homophone density” (Chen, Vaid, & Wu, 2009). In other words, characters with multiple homophones frequently occur in Chinese. According to Tan and Perfetti (1998), the number of Chinese characters with the same pronunciation can be up to 11 on average. Hence, it is easier to create Chinese puns than puns of other languages.
4.3Qualitative Analysis of Puns in Ads
In this section, the comprehension process of the three kinds of puns in both Chinese and English commercial insurance ads will be investigated. As for the theoretical framework, the present study proposes an integrated model CBR by integrating Sperber and Wilson's Relevance Theory (1986) and Fauconnier and Turner^ Conceptual Blending Theory (2002). We'll first discuss ho mo graphic puns in the analyzed ads, and then move on to survey homophonic puns and complex puns in the analyzed ads. For each type of pun in ads, one example will be illustrated in details, and the others will be introduced briefly. In particular, the first example in the following part will be presented most elaborately to show how Relevance Theory is integrated.
4.3.1Qualitative Analysis of Homographic Puns in Ads
Ho mo graphic puns in the present study refer to puns identical in graph or spelling but different in meaning, including homonym and heteronym in Chinese. The example below is a typical example of the ad created by homo graphic puns. In this section, we will carefully analyze this ad to show how the integrated model CBR works in interpreting the comprehension process of ads created by homographic puns.
要投就投中国人寿(An ad for China Life Insurance)
yao tou jiu tou zhongguo renshou
The ad yao tou jiu tou zhongguo renshou 要投就投中国人寿 is published by China Life Insurance (Group) Company to advertise itself trying to persuade people to get insured by China Life. Endorsed by the basketball star Yao Ming, tou 投 in this ad is a punning expression because it can be interpreted as both "shoot at the basket” and as "get insured^^. When people see this ad, it should be natural that the interpretation "shoot at the basket” comes to their minds first because the verb tou 投 and the basketball star Yao Ming on the picture all point to basketball game. Since Chinese people generally play basketball and are femiliar with this word, and the number of Chinese people who buy commercial insurance is not large, the conventional meaning "shoot at the basket” should have been stored in their memories and thus can be easily retrieved once they see the word. Within the framework of the integrated model CBR, the comprehension process of this ad is illustrated below.



In the figure above, the content of the two input mental spaces is determined by relevance which is put in Generic Space and context which is put in the middle o f the figure. When a recipient processes this ad in his or her mind and sees the punning expression, he or she would immediately seeks relevance to figure out the meaning of the sentence. Since "投” is a polysemy the recipient is geared to search for its most relevant meanings, such as “投票” which means “to vote”,etc. Then, taking context into account, given this is an ad published by the insurance company China Life and the basketball star Yao Ming is on the picture, the rec53ient would quickly determine that “投” here refers to "投篮” and "投保”,which respectively means %o shoot at the basket95 and “to get insured”. Thus, two input spaces are activated. Input space 1 is constructed by the sentence including the word "投(篮)which means %o shoot at the basket”,and input space2 is constructed by the sentence including the word "投(保)'; which means "to get insured”. Input pacel also includes such concepts as "中国人 寿"(China Life Insurance),"投(篮)(to shoot at the basket)'; etc. And input space2 also
includes such concepts as "中国人寿"(China Life Insurance),"投(保)(to get insured)'; etc. A partial cross-space mapping connects counterparts in the two input mental spaces: Cl[投篮 to shoot at the basket] — cl[投保 to get insured]; C2[就选 choose]— c2[就选 choose]; C3[中国人寿 China Life Insurance] — c3[中国人寿 China Life Insurance]. And the generic space is also developed, which essentially contains what is shared or common things among the two input spaces: “要做某事就选择中国人寿 (choose China Life Insurance if you want Here, both "投(篮)(to shoot at the
basket)” and "投(保)(to get insured)are the results of seeking relevance. At the same time, concepts and structure from two input spaces are projected selectively to the blend space: “要投(篮)就投中国人寿(shoot at the basket of China Life Insurance)and "要投(保)就投中国人寿(get insured by China Life Insurance)Then, these concepts in the blend space are integrated or blended into an emergent structure through composition, completion and elaboration:"像姚明一样,要投保就选择中国人寿(choose China Life Insurance if you want to get insured like the basketball star Yao Ming)'l Having a second consideration, this is not the final focused meaning. The ultimate intention is: “要买保险就选择中国人寿,在中国人寿投保就像姚明投篮一样准(choose China Life Insurance if you want to get insured, and you won't regret because ifs a choice as good as a basketball shot by Yao Ming)”. During the whole process, context plays a crucial role and is related to the determination of the content of the four spaces.
To make it clear, the interpretation process of this example within the framework of CBR is roughly demonstrated in the table below:

Table 4.5 Interpretation Process of Ad for China Life Insurance
Relevance Input Spacel
(explicit
meaning) Input Space2
(implicit
meaning) Generic
Space Blend
Space Emergent
Structure
Context: An insurance ad with the basketball star Yao Ming on the picture
search for Cl:要投(篮) cl:要投(保) 要做某 C1C2C3: 要买保险就选
the most (to shoot at the (to get insured) 事就选 要投(篮) 择中国人寿,
relevant basket) c2:就投 择中国 就投中国 在中国人寿投
meaning C2:就投 (choose) 人寿 寿 保就像姚明投
of the (choose) c3:中国人寿 (choose (shoot at 篮一样准
polysemy C3:中国人寿 (China Life China the basket (choose China
“投” (China Life Insurance) Life of China Life Insurance
Insurance) Insurance Life if you want to
if you Insurance) get insured, and
want to clc2c3:要 you won't
do sth.) 投(保)就 regret because
投中国人 ifs a choice as
寿(get good as a
insured by basketball shot
China by Yao Ming)
Life
Insurance)

Get Met. It Pays. (An Ad for Metropolitan Life Insurance or MetLife )
This ad is made by Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (MLIC), better known as MetLife, one of the largest global providers of insurance, annuities, and employee benefit programs. In this ad, the conventional meaning of It Pays is "doing something is worth the effort or e?q)ense,,9 for people frequently use this expression in life, and hence it is stored in their memories and can be retrieved quickly. However, on second thoughts, the recipient of the ad may wonder what the first half of the whole ad mean, especially what or who Met is. Although MetLife is renowned all over the world, not everyone knows about it. Only those who know MetLife can figure out the other meaning of It Pays, which is a"MetLife will pay the bills for you if you have an accident”. However, the caption on the pictorial illustrations will inform the recipient who has never heard of MetLife that Met is an insurance company. Hence, he or she is able to understand the pun contained in this ad. By only using Met instead of MetLife in the first half^ the advertiser deliberately hides something and makes people have a guess. We illustrate the detailed comprehension process within the framework of CBR in the table below.
Table 4.6 Interpretation Process of MetLife Insurance
Relevance Input Spacel
(explicit
meaning) Input Space2
(implicit meaning) Generic
Space Blend Space Emergent
Structure
Context: An insurance ad
search for Cl: get c 1: get Get C1C2C3: It is worthwhile
the most C2: Met c2: Met MetLife. Get to get insured
relevant C3: It is c3: It pays It is good MetLife. It by MetLife
meaning worthwhile money in that ... is because it
of the worthwhile. makes good
expression clc2c3: Get your loss when
“It pays” MetLife. It an accident
pays for occurs to you.
you.

In the table above, the content of the two input mental spaces is determined by relevance which is put in Generic Space and context which is put in the middle of the figure. When a recipient processes this ad in his or her mind and sees the expression "It pays'; he or she would first seek relevance to figure out the meaning of the egression because it can be interpreted in different ways. According to Relevance Theory the recipient is geared to search for the most relevant meanings to pays'; including “it is worthwhile': and “it pays money”. Since this is an ad published by the insurance company MetLife, the recipient goes through the two possible meanings and finds both of them make sense. Thus, explicit meaning is activated in input space 1 and implicit meaning is activated in input space2. The former is "get MetLife because it is worthwhileand the latter is "get MetLife because it pays for you”. Here the conventional meaning of the idiomatic egression "it pays” is regarded as the e科licit meaning, i.e. "it is worthwhile,5. This is because this meaning is much more femiliar to people so that people can retrieve it from their memories very easily. A partial cross-space mapping connects counterparts in the two input mental spaces: counterparts from the two input spaces are connected: Cl [get] — cl [get]; C2[Met]— c2[Met]; C3[It is worthwhile] — c3[It pays for you]. And the generic space is also developed, which essentially contains what is shared or common things among the two input spaces: “Get MetLife. It is good in that Here, both is worthwhile and pays for you” are the results of seeking relevance. At the same time, concepts and structure from two input spaces are projected selectively to the blend space: "Get MetLife. It is worthwhileand "Get MetLife. It pays for you”. Then, these concepts in the blend space are integrated or blended into an emergent structure through composition, completion and elaboration: "It is worthwhile to get insured by MetLife because it pays for you”. Having a second consideration, this is not the final focused meaning. The ultimate intention is: "It is worthwhile to get insured by MetLife because it makes good your loss when an accident occurs to you^^. During the whole process, context plays a crucial role and is related to the determination of the content of the four spaces.
4.3.2Qualitative Analysis of Homophonic Puns in Ads
Homophonic puns in the present study refer to puns identical or similar in sound but different in meaning, spelling, or both. It includes homophones, mimes and bilinguals. In our data, homophonic puns account for the largest proportion.
连年有余,丰收万利! (An Ad for Shin Kong-HNA Life Insurance)
lian nian you yu, feng shou wan li
This ad promotes an annuity insurance product called xin hai wan li 新海万禾U of Shin Kong-HNA Life Insurance Company Ltd. In this ad, the idiomatic expression feng shou wan li 丰收万里 is adapted to feng shou wan li 丰收万利.The two Chinese characters 里 and 禾[J are similar in sound, both being pronounced as uli,,? but differ in meanings, li M is a Chinese unit of length representing 500 meters, while li 利 refers to profits. And wan li 万里 means a length of over 10,000-li./eng shou wan li 丰收万 里 is usually used to describe a very good harvest of crops, while feng shou wan li 丰
收万利 means %o harvest big profits^^. This ad is easy to be understood. Within the framework of CBR, we illustrate the interpretation process of this ad below.

Figure 4.2 Comprehension Process of Ad for Shin Kong-HNA Life Insurance

In accordance with CBR, when the audience processes this ad in his or her mind, he or she would immediately seeks relevance to figure out the meaning of the homophonic pun. According to Relevance Theory the audience is geared to search for the most relevant information to him or her, and therefore he or she will quickly find that 里” and "li 利” are homophones. Given this is an ad published by the insurance company Shin Kong-HNA Life and the annuity product name contains "万 利(a lot ofprofits)^^ which sounds like "万里(a great distance)'; the audience finds that both expressions make sense, Thus, two input spaces are activated. Input space 1 is “连 年有余,丰收万里(Have a surplus year after year as well as a good harvest)55? including concepts such as “连年(year after year)'; “有余(have a surplus)';"丰收(harvest)and "万里(over 10,000 li)^. Input space2 is “连年有余,丰收万利(Have a surplus year after year and harvest big profits)”,including concepts such as “连年(year after year)';"有 余(have a surplus)5,?"丰收(harvest),5? and “万利(a lot of benefits)^^. A partial cross-space mapping connects counterparts in the two input spaces: Cl[连年 year after year] — cl[连年 year after year]; C2[有余 have a surplus] — c2[有余 have a surplus]; C3[丰收 harvest] - c3[丰收 harvest]; C4[万里 a great distance] - c4[万利 a lot of pro fits]. And the generic space is developed, which contains the frame:"连年有余,收获很多东 西(surplus year after year and harvest many things)”. Meanwhile, concepts and structure from two input spaces are projected selectively to the blend space:"连年有 余,丰收万里(Have a surplus year after year as well as a good harvest)and “连年有余, 丰收万利 (Have a surplus year after year and harvest big pro fits)5,. Then, these concepts in the blend space are blended into an emergent structure through composition, completion and elaboration: u连年有余,收获很多,包括丰厚利润(Have a surplus year after year and a good harvest including big profits)^^. However, this is not the final focused meaning. The ultimate intention is: 要连年有余,收获丰厚利润,就 买新空海航新光海航新海万利年金保险(buy the annuity insurance called xin hai wan li from Shin Kong-HNA Life Insurance, and you can have a surplus year after year as well as a good harvest including big pro fits),5. During the whole process, context plays a crucial role and is related to the determination of the content of the four spaces.
To make it clear, the interpretation process of this example within the framework of CBR is roughly demonstrated in the table below:

Table 4.7 Interpretation Process of Ad for Shin Kong-HNA Life Insurance
Relevance Input Spacel
(explicit
meaning) Input Space2
(implicit
meaning) Generic
Space Blend Space Emergent
Structure
Context: An insurance ad
search for Cl:连年 cl:连年 连年有余, C1C2C3C4: 想要连年有
the most (year after year) (year after year) 收获很多 连年有余, 余,收获丰厚
relevant C2:有余 c2:有余 东西 丰收万里 利润,就买新
meaning of (surplus) (surplus) (surplus (Have a 空海航新光海
the C3:丰收 c3:丰收 year after surplus year 航新海万利年
homophonic (harvest) (harvest) year and after year as 金保险(buy the
pun "wan C4:万里 C4:万利 harvest well as a annuity
F (over 10,000 li) (a lot of profits) many good insurance
things) harvest) called xin hai
clc2c3c4: wan li from
连年有余, Shin
丰收万利 Kong-HNA
(Have a Life Insurance,
surplus year and you can
after year have a surplus
and harvest year after year
big profits) as well as a good harvest including big profits)

Compare the Meerkat (An Ad for the c omparethemarket. c om)
This example is an advertising campaign on commercial television in both the UK and Australia for comparethemarket.com, an insurance price comparison website. This series of ads feature a CGI fictional anthropomorphic Russian meerkat called Aleksandr Orloy and his femily as well as friends. The ads portray Orlov as being of aristocratic stock and the founder of comparethemeerkat.com: the advertising campaign focuses on his frustration over the confusion between his website and comparethemarket.com, playing on the similarity between the words market and meerkat. OrloVs catchphrase is "Simples". Aleksandr Orlov was an alias of Lev Lazarevich Nikolsky the acting NKVD chief in Madrid in 1936, during the Spanish Civfl War.
The advertising campaign was created by advertising agency VCCP and production company Passion Pictures, and was launched on January 5th, 2009. The ads proved to be popular and gained commercial success for compare the market, com, which ranked the fourth among the most visited insurance website in the UK as a result. A book featuring Orlov was even published in 2010, and other merchandise has been created in tandem with the ongoing campaign.
The word Meerkat is similar in pronunciation to market. And therefore it constitutes a homophonic pun in the present study because it is a mime. The ad actually communicates one meaning: compare the market, but arouses people's interests by telling a story with a meerkat as the hero. Within the framework of CBR, we will illustrate the comprehension process of this ad below.
Table 4.8 Interpretation Process of Ad for comparethemarket.com
Relevance Input Spacel
(explicit
meaning) Input Space2
(implicit
meaning) Generic
Space Blend
Space Emergent Structure
Context: An insurance price comparison website
search for Cl: compare cl: compare Compare C1C2: Ms it
the most C2: Meerkat c2: market sth. Compare c omparethemarket.c om
relevant the to compare insurance
meaning of Meerkat prices and you won't
the clc2: get frustrated
homophonic Compare
pun the
“Meerkat" market
In accordance with CBR, when the audience processes this ad in his or her mind, he or she would immediately seeks relevance to figure out the meaning of the egression. According to Relevance Theory the audience is geared to search for the most relevant meanings to “Meerkat'; and therefore will quickly find that 44Meerkaf, and “"Market” are pronounced similarly. The audience will also be told the story of Aleksandr Orloy founder of comparethemeerkat.com, who is frustrated over the confusion between his website and comparethemarket.com. Thus, two input spaces are activated. Input Space 1 is 4"Compare the Meerkat", and Input Space2 is '"Compare the market". A partial cross-space mapping connects counterparts in the two input mental spaces: counterparts from the two input spaces are connected: Cl [compare]— cl [compare]; C2[Meerkat] — c2[market]. And the generic space is also developed, which essentially contains what is shared or common things among the two input spaces: a"Compare sth'〔 Here, both a'Compare the Meerkaf9 and 4"Compare the market” are the results of seeking relevance. Then, these concepts in the blend space are blended into an emergent structure through composition, completion and elaboration: 4'Compare the market and compare the Meerkaf,. Having a second consideration, this is not the final focused meaning. The ultimate intention is: "Visit comparethemarket.com to compare insurance prices and you won't get frustrated9,. During the whole process, context plays a crucial role and is related to the determination of the content of the four spaces.
4.3.3Qualitative Analysis of Complex Puns in Ads
Complex puns in this study refers to puns composed of both homophonic puns and homographic puns. There are few complex puns.
约"惠”太平,放心出行(An Ad for China Taiping Insurance)
yue hui taiping, fangxin chuxing
This is a car insurance ad published by China Taiping Insurance Group Ltd. It contains two puns: one is a homophonic pun yue hui 约“惠"and the other is a homo graphic pun tai ping 太平.The former can be understood as "date with sb” or as “date with a discount", while the latter can be understood as "safety” or a"China Taiping Insurance,5. Within the framework of CBR, the interpretation process of this

ad is shown below.

Figure 4.3 Comprehension Process of Ad for China Taiping Insurance

In accordance with CBR, when the audience processes this ad in his or her mind, he or she would immediately seeks relevance to figure out the meaning of the complex pun. According to Relevance Theory the audience is geared to search for the most relevant information to him or her. Since the audience is geared to search for the most relevant information to him or her, he or she will quickly find that ^hui 惠” and ^hui 会” are homophones, and tend to understand “太平"as “sa抱ty'〔 Given this is an ad published by the insurance company China Taiping Insurance, the audience then determines that both “约会(date with)" and "约,惠9(get a discount)^^ make sense here, with the latter seeming more suitable. Besides, the audience also determines that "太 平"can also refer to the insurance company China Taiping. Thus, two input spaces are activated. Input spacel is “约会太平,放心出行(date with Taiping, feel free to travel)'; including concepts such as “约会(date with)'; “太平(Taiping)5,, “放心(抱el free to)”, and “出行(travel)”. Input space2 is “纣惠,太平,放心出行(get insured by Taiping Insurance with a discount, and feel free to travel)'; including concepts such as "约 穗"date with a discount)'; “太平(Taiping Insurance),,?放心(伦el free to)”,and “出行 (travel)”. Counterpart connections in the two input spaces occur through partial cross-space mapping: Cl[约会 date with] — cl [约,惠,date with a discount]; C2[太平 safety] — c2[太平 Taiping Insurance]; C3[放心 feel free to] — c3[放心 feel free to]; C4[出行 travel] — c4[出行 travel]. And the generic space is constituted, which contains the frame: “与 XX 相约,出行放心(date with sth and feel free to travel)”. Meanwhile, concepts and structure from two input spaces are projected selectively to the blend space: “约会太平,放心出行(date with safety and feel free to travel)and “约穗'太平, 放心出行(get insured by Taiping Insurance with a discount, and feel free to travel)9,. Then, these concepts in the blend space are blended into an emergent structure through composition, completion and elaboration: “选择太平保险,有优惠,放心出行(get insured by Taiping Insurance with a discount, and feel free to travel)However, this is not the final focused meaning. The ultimate intention is: “买太平车险,有优惠,保平 安,出行放心(to be safer, get insured by Taiping car insurance now with a discount, and you'll feel free to travel)”.
To make it clear, the interpretation process of this example within the framework of CBT is roughly demonstrated in the table below:

Table 4.9 Interpretation Process of Ad for China Taiping Insurance
Relevance Input Spacel Input Space2 Generic Blend Space Emergent
(explicit (implicit Space Structure
meaning) meaning)
Context: An insurance ad
search for Cl:约会(date cl:约:惠'(date 与XX相 C1C2C3C4: 买太平车险,
the most with) with a discount) 约,出行 约会太平, 有优惠,保平
relevant C2: 太平 c2: 太 平 放心(date 放心出行 安,出行放心
meaning (safety) (Taiping with sth. (date with (to be safer, get
of the C3:放心(feel Insurance) and feel safety, and insured by
complex free to) c3:放心(feel free to feel free to Taiping car
pun C4: 出行 free to) travel) travel)'' insurance now
(travel) c4:出行(travel) clc2c3c4: with a discount,
约,惠,太平, and you'll feel
放心出行 free to travel)
(get insured
by Taiping
Insurance
with a
discount,
and feel free
to travel)^^

4.4Summary
In summary the qualitative analysis shows how the integrated model CBR works in interpreting the comprehension process of Chinese and English commercial insurance ads containing puns. It proves that it5s practical to integrate the two theories of Relevance Theory and Conceptual Blending Theory. Through quantitative and qualitative analyses, we find that first, both homographic puns and homophonic puns are frequently used in the analyzed commercial insurance advertisements of both languages. On one hand, the most frequently used type of pun in the analyzed ads of both languages is ho mo graphic puns, occurring much more often than homophonic puns. On the other hand, puns occur more frequently in the analyzed Chinese ads than in the analyzed English ads, and homophonic puns account for a larger proportion in the analyzed Chinese ads than in the analyzed English ads. Next, the integration of Relevance Theory and Conceptual Blending Theory can explain the understanding of commercial insurance ads created by puns more comprehensively and vividly based on the complementarity of the two theories. Compared with previous studies adopting a relevance-theoretic approach (Tanaka, 1992, 1994, Yus, 2003, Mulken, 2005), this thesis also proves that it is possible to explain how puns in ads are understood within the framework of Relevance Theory. However, it doesn't introduce the notion of salience (Giora, 1999) in the definition of puns like Yus and Mulken. Instead, it simplifies the classification of puns in ads and focuses on the frequencies of each type pf pun in the analyzed data. Besides, on the basis of previous studies adopting a cognitive approach (Heller, 1974, Lundmark, 2013), this study further attempts to apply Conceptual Blending Theory to interpret commercial insurance ads containing puns. In a word, this thesis proves that Relevance Theory and Conceptual Blending Theory can be combined together and can better explain ads containing puns. It also contributes to the copy development of commercial insurance advertisements.
Chapter Five Conclusion
This chapter will first give a brief summary of the thesis, and then introduce the theoretical as well as practical contributions respectively and finally move on to illustrate the limitations and implications of the study.
5.1Summary of the Thesis
The present study focuses on accounting for the comprehension process of puns in Chinese and English commercial insurance advertisements within an integrated framework of Relevance Theory and Conceptual Blending Theory. The two theories share similarities and are complementary to each other. Relevance Theory provides a general principle for pragmatic inference, while Conceptual Blending Theory vividly illustrates the process of inference. Both offer important insights into the comprehension process of pun in ads.
Through qualitative analysis, this study finds that the combination of Relevance Theory and Conceptual Blending Theory can better explain the comprehension process of the commercial insurance ads created by puns. Specifically speaking, relevance proposed in Relevance Theory interplays with the other governing principles of Conceptual Blending, which contributes to answering the determination of the content of any given mental space, especially the two input mental spaces. Relevance Theory provides contextual constraints for Conceptual Blending Theory. In other words, Relevance Theory takes into account the interpreter of an advertisement and the particular setting in which an advertisement occurs. The two theories have stronger explanatory power when they are integrated.
Through quantitative analysis, we find that first, the incidence of puns in the analyzed Chinese advertisements is higher than that in the analyzed English advertisements. Besides, both ho mo graphic puns and homophonic puns are frequently used in the analyzed commercial insurance ads. Moreover, ho mo graphic puns occur much more often than homophonic puns, especially in the analyzed English ads. The higher incidence of ho mo graphic puns than that of homophonic puns in both languages may be related with the specialty of commercial insurance as a goods. Since commercial insurance is to mitigate loss, commercial insurance ads should be serious and stick to rules, while homophonic puns are generally used to make people laugh. And the phenomenon is in particular obvious in the analyzed English ads may be due to the feet that Chinese is a language of “high homophone density^^. Hence, advertisers can easily make puns by seeking appropriate words with the same pronunciation.
5.2Theoretical Contribution
Previous studies usually investigate puns in ads from a single perspective, including rhetoric, semiotics, pragmatics, and cognitive linguistics. The present study adopts an integrated approach by integrating Relevance Theory with Conceptual Blending Theory. This study proves the complementarity of the two theories. It also proves that ifs practical to combine the two theories to interpret the comprehension process of puns in advertisements. Both theories offer important insights into the role of pun in cognition and language use. This thesis may shed some light on future related studies and contribute to the development of the two theories.
5.3Practical Contribution
Since the ads analyzed in this thesis are all commercial insurance ads, this thesis can help advertisers especially commercial insurance advertisers better understand how a pun-based advertisement is interpreted and gain enlightenment on advertising in future. Also, language is an embodiment of culture. Chinese commercial insurance ads are different from English commercial insurance ads. The former tends to use puns to express a blessing, while the latter tends to use puns to make the audience feel secure. In feet, for the time being, Chinese ads are learning from English ads and trying to touch people through humanized ad copies.
Besides, this study enhances people's understanding of Chinese culture and English culture because it compares the use of puns in both Chinese and English ads. It finds that Chinese, as an ideographic language, is quite different from Englis扎 an Indo-European language. For example, Chinese is a language of higher homophone density than English. This thesis to some extent reveals the difference between language use habits of Chinese and English in the commercial insurance field.
5.4Limitations of the Current Study
Though hard work has been done to the present study, this research is still far from being adequate in terms of both breadth and depth.
First, although this thesis tries to investigate puns in commercial insurance ads within a cognitive-pragmatic framework, it only deals with certain aspects of both Relevance Theory and Conceptual Blending Theory namely relevance, context and integration.
Second, though this thesis proposes a new integrated model CBR based on RT and CBT to explain the comprehension process of commercial insurance ads containing puns, this model is far from being perfect. This thesis simplifies the integration of RT and CBT by focusing on how the content of the two input mental spaces is determined under the influence of the interplay between relevance and the other governing princ^)les of conceptual blending.
Third, the quantitative findings of this thesis may not be objective enough. On one hand, the size of the analyzed data in this thesis is limited. On the other hand, since up to now there has been no existing corpus of commercial insurance ads, we had to do the collection work by ourselves. To make our data as representative as possible, we tend to choose classical ads that are well-known to people and those that can be found on the official websites of commercial insurance companies. The way we chose data may influence quantitative findings. Though the representativeness of the data has been verified in the section of Data Collection, additional data should make this research more convincing. In addition, our categorization of puns may be too simple and hence make the quantitative analysis not comprehensive enough and unable to further reveal the similarities and differences between Chinese puns and English puns in ads.
Fourth, the quantitative analysis of the qualitative analysis may be not integrated very well to probe more things behind. Besides, due to limited conditions, the present study didn't conduct any experiment to test the reliability and validity of the study.
5.5Implications for Future Studies
The integration of Relevance Theory and Conceptual Blending Theory offers new insight into the study of puns in ads in different fields. However, due to limited resources, this study only focuses on certain aspects of the two theories and simplify their integration to reduce the difficulty of analysis.
Future studies may investigate the two theories more thoroughly to find a better way to integrate the two theories to account for the comprehension of ads containing puns in a more comprehensive manner. This will also contribute to the development of both theories.
Besides, more advertisements can be collected and analyzed in future studies to draw a more objective conclusion. In fact, a corpus of ads in certain fields such as commercial insurance can be built. This will also help verify and revise the integrated approach.
Moreover, experiments like questionnaires may be conducted to verify the credibility of the data and thus to make the study more convincing.
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Appendix
Chinese commercial insurance ads:
1.中国平安,平安中国(中国平安)
zhognguo ping an, ping an zhongguo
'May China be safe, Ping An China'
'China Ping An, safe China'
['ping an' = 'safe / peacefuF and 'Ping An Insurance']
2.让每个家庭拥有平安(中国平安)
rang meige jiating yongyou ping an
'Let every family have safety / peace'
'Let every family have Ping An insurance'
['ping an' = 'safety/peace' and 'Ping An Insurance,]
3.买保险就是买平安(中国平安)
mai baoxian jiushi mai ping an
'Buying insurance is buying safety[ 绿色承诺,平安中国,中国平安低碳100行动计划,与您共建绿色家园(中国平安)
Ivse chengnuo, ping an zhongguo, zhongguo ping an ditan 100 xingdong jihua, yu ning gong]
'Buying insurance is buying Ping An insurance'
['ping an':,safety' or 'PingAn insurance,]
4.财富人生,平安相伴(中国平安)
caifu rensheng, ping an xiangban
'Wealthy life is accompanied by safety5
'Wealthy life is accompanied by Ping An Insurance,
['ping an': 'safety' or 'PingAn insurance']
xiang Ivse jiayuan
'Green Commitment, Ping An China, China Ping An Low Carbon 100 Action Plan, Building a Green Home with You,
'Green Commitment, Safe China, China Ping An Low Carbon 100 Action Plan, Building a
Green Home with You,
[4ping an': 'safety' or 'PingAn insurance']
6.出游险,旅游就选平安保险,平安伴您安心(中国平安)
chu you xian, Ivyou jiu xuan ping an baoxian, ping an ban nin an xin
'Travel is dangerous, choose Ping An insurance, Ping An insurance will make you feel
relieved[ 经典美满,一生珍藏,给付加保障,一年一收益(中国人寿 美满一生年金保障)
jingdian meiman, yisheng zhen ccing, ji fu jia baozhang, yinian yi shouyi]
"Travel is dangerous, choose Ping An insurance, safety will make you feel relieved9
['ping an': 'safety9 or 'PingAn insurance,]
7.买车险就是买平安(中国平安)
mai che xian jiushi mai ping an
'Buying car insurance is buying safety'
'Buying car insurance is buying Ping An insurance'
['ping an': 'safety9 or 'PingAn insurance5]
8.要投就投中国人寿(中国人寿)
yao tou jiu tou zhongguo renshou
'To shoot at the basket, choose China Life Insurance5
'To get insured, choose China Life Insurance'
['tou': 'shoot at the basket5 or 'get insured5]
[Also, 'yao 要'is pronounced the same as 'yao 姚',the family name of the basketball star Yao Ming ]
'Classic and happy, lifetime collection, add guarantee to payments, annual earnings?
'Classic meiman yisheng annuity which could be treasured, add guarantee to payments, annual earnings9
['meiman yisheng5: 'happy life5 or 'meiman yisheng annuity9]
10.鑫福相伴,一生幸福(中国人寿)
xin fu xiang ban, yisheng xing fu
'Happiness accompanies you, wish you a lifetime of happiness5
'Prosperity and good fortune accompany you, wish you a lifetime of happiness'
['xin fu': 'happiness' or 'prosperity and good fortune5 because 'xin 鑫'is pronounced similarly to 4xing 幸,]
11.平时注入一滴水,难时拥有太平洋
pingshi zhuru yidi shui, nan shi yongyou taipingyang
'A drop of water a day brings you the pacific ocean on dry days'
'It pays to get insured by China Pacific insurance,
['taipingyang': 'pacific ocean? or 'China Pacific insurance,]
12.智惠之选,添利未来(新华保险惠添利两全保险New China Life Hui Tian Li endowment
insurance)
zhihui zhi xuan, tian li weilai
'Wise choice will bring benefits in future'
'It's wise and favorable to choose Hui Tian Li endowment insurance, which is a good deal and will bring benefits in future.'
[The phrase 'zhihui 智惠'which means 'wise and favorable' is pronounced the same as 'zhihui 智慧'which means'wise,.]
13.人民保险,造福于民(中国人民保险PICC)
renmin baoxian, zaofu yu min
'The People's insurance for the benefits of the people5
'PICC: for the benefits of the people5
[The phrase "renmin baoxian 人民保险':"the people's insurance9 or the insurance company
TICC]
14.盛世中国 四海太平(中国太平China Taiping)
shengshi zhongguo, sihai taiping
"China is in an age of peace and prosperity,
"China Taiping is there (for you),
['taiping 太平':'peace' or 'China Taiping Insurance,]
15.爱生活,享太平(中国太平China Taiping)
ai shenghuo, xiang taiping
"Love Life, enjoy peace'
"Enjoy peaceful life with Taiping insurance9
['taiping 太平':'peace' or 'China Taiping Insurance9 ]
16.为您分担风险,与您共享太平(中国太平China Taiping)
wei ninfendan fengxian, yu nin gong xiang taiping
'Share risks and share peace with you'
'Get insured by China Taiping, and it will share risks with you'
['taiping 太平':'peace' or 'China Taiping Insurance9 ]
17.全球保障,共享太平(中国太平China Taiping)
quanqiu baozhang, gong xiang taiping
"Protected worldwide, sharing peace5
4Get insured by China Taiping and you511 be protected worldwide9
['taiping 太平':'peace' or 'China Taiping Insurance,]
18.太平保险,保险太平,我就选择中国太平(中国太平China Taiping)
taiping baoxian, baoxian taiping, wo jiu xuanze zhongguo taiping
'Safe insurance for your safety. To buy insurance, I choose China Taiping '
'China Taiping protects your safety. To buy insurance, I choose China Taiping9
['taiping 太平':'safe or 'China Taiping Insurance']
19.约“惠”太平,放心出行(中国太平China Taiping)
yuehui taiping, fangxin chuxing
'Date with safety, and feel free to traveF
'Get insured by Taiping Insurance with a discount, and feel free to traveF
[First, 4hui 惠'(discount) is pronounced the same as 4hui 会'(meet, date); here, "yuehui 约 会'(date with sb) is pronounced the same as 'yuehui 约'惠''(get a discount); Second, 'taiping 太平':4peace9 or 'China Taiping travel insurance'].
20.畅游全球,太平相伴(中国太平旅游险China Taiping travel insurance)
changyou quanqiu, taiping xiang ban
4Travel around the world, accompanied by peace5
4Travel around the world, accompanied by China Taiping travel insurance,
['taiping 太平':'peace' or 'China Taiping travel insurance']
21.孩子健康,父母安心,爱孩子就送他一份i宝贝(富德生命人寿i宝贝少儿重大疾病保
障计戈lj Funde Sino Life i Bao Bei major disease insurance for children )
haizi jiankang, fumu an xin, ai haizi jiu song ta yifen ai baobei
'The parents are relieved if their child is healthy. If you love your child, you can buy him or her an i baby insurance.5
'The parents are relieved if their child is healthy. If you love your child, you can buy him or her an love baby insurance/
[The English letter 'i' is pronounced the same as the Chinese character 'ai 爱'which means 'love'. So ci Bao Bei': 4i baby insurance9 or 4love baby insurance']
22.分担风雨,共享阳光 邙日光保险Sunshine Insurance)
fendanfengyu, gong xiang yangguang
'Share rainstorm, share sunlight (i.e. Stand together through thick and thin)'
'Get insured by Sunshine Insurance. It will share rainstorm with you'
['yangguang 卩日光':'sunshine' or 4Sunshine Insurance,]
23.人人都需要阳光 邙日光保险Sunshine Insurance)
renren dou xuyao yangguang
'Everyone needs sunshine,
'Everyone needs Sunshine Insurance,
['yangguang 卩日光':'sunshine' or 4Sunshine Insurance,]
24.让人们拥有更多的阳光 邙日光保险Sunshine Insurance)
rang renmen yongyou gengduo de yangguang
'Let people have more sunshine'
'Let people be more secure with Sunshine Insurance'
['yangguang 卩日光':'sunshine' or cSunshine Insurance5 ]
25.中意人生,一生中意(中意人寿Generali China Life Insurance)
zhongyi rensheng, yisheng zhongyi
'Be contented with your life and be contented for a lifetime?
'Get insured by Generali China Life Insurance and you911 live a happy and contented life'
['zhongyi 中意':4contented9 or 'Generali China Life Insurance']
26.幸福人寿,幸福一生(幸福人寿Jfeppy Life Insurance)
xingfu renshou, xingfu yisheng
'Happy insurance brings you a happy life'
'Happy Life Insurance brings you a happy life'
['xingfu renshou\ 'happy insurance' or 'Happy Life Insurance']
27.全家如意,福佑金生(民生人寿全家福佑养老年金保险Minsheng Insurance Quan Jia Fu
You annuity)
quart jia ruyi, fu you jin sheng
'The whole family lives a rich and happy life,
'Buy Quan Jia Fu You annuity, live a rich and happy life5
['quanjia 全家':"the whole family, or "Quan Jia Fu You annuity5; 'fuyou 福佑'(blessed or
Quan Jia Fu You annuity ) is pronounced similarly as 4fuyou 富有,(rich)]
28.长城保险,伴您人生长程(长城人寿Greatwall Life)
changcheng baoxian, ban nin rensheng changcheng
'Greatwall Life Insurance keeps company with your long life'
'Greatwall Life Insurance keeps company with your great/splendid life'
['changcheng 长程,(long road of one's life) is pronounced the same as "changcheng 长 城'(the Great Wall); besides, 'changcheng 长城'can also mean 'one's great/splendid life' when it is combined with "rensheng 人生']
29.有长城,更保险(长城人寿Greatwall Life)
you changcheng, geng baoxian
'With the Great Wall, life is more secure5
'With Greatwall Insurance, life is more secure9
['changcheng 长城':'the Great Wall (of China)' or 'Greatwall Life Insurance9 ]
30.天地间,安为贵(天安保险Tianan Property Insurance)
tiandijian, an wei gui
'Between heaven and earth, safety is the most precious5
'Buy Tianan Insurance is buying safety
['tian 天'means 4heaven? and 4an 安'means 'safety'. The name of the insurance company
'tianan 天安'is disassembled to combine with other words to form phrases.]
31.天安保障生活每一天(天安保险Tianan Property Insurance)
tianan baozhang shenghuo mei yi tian
'Tianan Insurance guarantees life every day,
'World peace guarantees life every day'
['tianan 天安':"world peace' or 'Tianan Insurance,]
32.长保护周全,安康伴一生(中宏 长保安康尊享版重大疾病保险Manulife-Sinochem Chang
Bao An Kang major illness insurance)
chang bao hu zhouquan, an kang ban yisheng
'Long-term insurance protects your safety, and good health accompanies you for a lifetime?
'Chang Bao An Kang major iltoess insurance protects your safety and accompanies you for a lifetime,
['ankang 安康':'good health? or 'Chang Bao An Kang major illness insurance,; 'changbao 长保':clong-term insurance9 or 'Chang Bao An Kang major illness insurance,]
33.鑫悦诚福,尊享品质人生(工银安盛人寿鑫丰瑞年金保障ICBC-AXALife Xin Feng Rui annuity)
Xin yue cheng fu, zun xiang pinzhi rensheng
'Completely convinced, enjoy quality life,
"Enjoy quality life by buying ICBC-AXA Life Xin Feng Rui annuity. We guarantee your wealth with heart?
['xin yue cheng fu 鑫悦诚福'(feel happy with wealth and honest service) is pronounced the same as the Chinese idiom 'xin yue cheng fu 心悦诚服'(completely convinced)]
34.鑫花怒放,富贵花开(工银安盛人寿鑫富贵终身寿险ICBC-AXA Life Xin Fu Gui whole
life insurance)
xin hua nufang, fugui hua kai
'Elated, rich and honored?
'Xin Fu Gui whole life insurance brings you happiness and wealth5
['xin 鑫'is pronounced the same as 'xin 心、';'xinhuanufang 心花怒放,means 'be elated'; and 'fuguihuakai 富贵花开,means 'rich and honored\ Also, 'xin 鑫’and 4fugui 富贵'
35.用鑫成就宝贝未来(工银安盛人寿鑫宝贝保险产品计划ICBC-AXA Life Xin Bao Bei
insurance)
yong xin chengjiu baobei weilai
'Make your baby's future with heart?
'Make your baby's future by buying Xin Bao Bei insurance9
['xin 鑫'(money / wealth) is pronounced the same as 'xin 心'(heart). Here, "yong xin 用鑫
'with hearf or 'by buying Xin Bao Bei insurance']
36.健康相随,“御”享未来(工银安盛人寿御立方五号保险产品计划ICBC-AXA Life Mi Li
Fang No.5 insurance)
jiankang xiang sui, yu xiang weilai
'Accompanied by health, enjoy the future ahead of time'
'Mi Li Fang No.5 insurance brings you a healthy future'
[4yu 隹『(Mi Li Fang No. 5 insurance) is pronounced the same as cyu 预,(ahead of time).]
37.福运相伴,喜悦连年(光大永明福运连年年金保险产品计划Sun Life Everbright Life
Insurance fu yun lian nian annuity product)
fu yun xiang ban, xi yue lian nian
'Good fortune accompanied, joy for years'
Tu yun lian nian insurance product accompanied, joy for years'
['fu yun lian nian,: 'good fortune for years' or 'fu yun lian nian annuity producf]
38.家和万事兴(嘉禾人寿JiaheLife)
Jia he wan shi xing
'Harmony of a family brings wealth'
4 Jiahe Life brings wealth'
[Jia he':,家和(harmony of a family)^ or :嘉禾(Jiahe Life)']
39.如意之道,传家首选(信泰如意传家终身寿险Sinatay Insurance Ruiyi Chuanjia whole life insurance)
ruyi zhi dao, chuan jia shou xuan
'The way to achieve happiness is a preferred choice to hand down from generation to generation in a family '
'Ruiyi Chuanjia whole life insurance: a preferred choice5
[4ruiyi 女口意':'happiness' or 'Ruiyi Chuanjia whole life insurance,; 'chuanjia 传家':'hand down from generation to generation in a family' or 'Ruiyi Chuanjia whole life insurance,]
40.如意人生,人生如意(信泰如意人生养老年金保障Sinatay Insurance Ruyi Rensheng annuity)
ruyi rensheng, rensheng ruyi
'Live a happy life '
'Ruyi Rensheng annuity makes your life happy'
[4ruyi 女口意':'happy' or 4Ruyi Rensheng annuity5]
41.富贵金生,传家无忧(信泰富贵传家年金保险计划Sinatay Insurance Fugui Chuanjia annuity)
fugui jin sheng, chuanjia wuyou
'Fugui Chuanjia annuity: wealth grows, no worries'
'Fugui Chuanjia annuity: no worries for this life'
[Jin 金,(money) is pronounced the same as Jin 今'(today);,金生'(money grows), a noun+verb structure is pronounced the same as the noun phrase 4 今生'(this life)]
42.新意相伴,海纳真情(新光海航Shin Kong-HNA Life)
xinyi xiang ban, hai nai zhenqing
'We accompany you with kindness/heart and our love for you is as deep as the sea'
'Shin Kong-HNA Life accompanies you and cares about you'
[4xinyi 新意'(new ideas) is pronounced the same as "xinyi 心意'(kindness/heart); here, cxin 新,and 4hai 海,also can refer to the abbreviation of 'Shin Kong-HNA Life 新光海航']
annuity)
lian nian you yu, fengshou wanly
'Have a surplus year after year as well as a good harvest?
'Have a surplus year after year and harvest big profits'
["wanli 万禾 l|?(a lot of profits) is pronounced the same as "wanli 万里'(over 10 000 li/ a great distance)]
44.安鑫传家,温暖传承鑫出发(中英人寿安鑫传家终身寿险Aviva-Cofco Life Insurance An
Xin Chuan Jia whole life insurance)
an xin chuan jia, wennuan chuancheng xin chufa
'An Xin Chuan Jia whole life insurance: pass warmth and begin anew'
'An Xin Chuan Jia whole life insurance: begin from passing on wealth'
[4xin 鑫,(wealth) is pronounced the same as 4xin 新,(anew)]
45.乐溢金生,快意人生(中英人寿乐溢金生年金保险Aviva-Cofco Life Insurance Le Yi Jin
Sheng annuity)
le yi jin sheng, kuaiyi rensheng
'Buy Le Y Jin Sheng annuity, live a happy life'
'Live a happy life with money growing full of delights?
[Jin 金,(money) is pronounced the same as Jin 今'(today);,金生'(money grows), a noun+verb structure is pronounced the same as the noun phrase 4 今生'(this life)]
46.中国人的车 当然中国人保(中国人民保险PICC)
zhongguo ren de che, dan gran zhongguo ren bao
Tor Chinese people's car, of course choose PICC'
'Chinese people's car of course insured by Chinese people'
['zhongguo ren bao 中国人保':"the abbreviation of PICC, or 'be insured by Chinese people(the grammatical structure of this phrase can be divided into a noun(中国人 Chinese
47.众诚车险e站快赔(众诚汽车保险Urtrust Insurance)
zhong cheng che xian, yi zhan kuai pei
'Urtrust car insurance: one-stop fast compensation9
'Get compensated immediately on our website/app'
[The English letter which means celectronic9 is pronounced the same as the Chinese character which means 'one']
48.和谐康寿 美满一家(中国人寿China Life Kangshou insurance)
hexie kangshou, meiman yi jia
'A harmonious, healthy happy family with longevity9
'Harmonious Kangshou insurance brings you a happy family5
['kangshou 康寿':'healthy and longevity9 or 'Kangshou insurance']
49.用“鑫”守护您的每一位家人(中信保诚鑫惠康健康保障计划CBTIC Prudential Life
InsuranceXinHui Kang health insurance)
yong xin shouhu nin de mei yi wei jiaren
'Protect every family of yours with heart,
'Protect every family of yours with prosperity / wealth'
['xin 鑫(prosperity / wealth)' is pronounced the same as 'xin 心、(heart)']
50.光大保险,永明一生(光大永明人寿Sun Life Everbright Life Insurance)
guangda baoxian, yong ming yisheng
'Sun Life insurance illuminates your life'
'Sun Life Everbright: a lifetime guarantee?
['yongming 永明':4to illuminate9 or 4Sun Life Everbright Insurance,]
51.你的平安,我的承诺(中国平安Ping An Insurance China)
ni de ping an, wo de chengnuo
52.好车险 保平安(中国平安Ping An Insurance China)
hao che xian, bao ping an
'Good car insurance for security
53•喂!我是葛优啊,哦,电话车险?选平安!大品牌,理赔快,身边好多人都在用...... wei !wo shi ge you a , o , dianhua che xian? xuan ping an ! da pinpai ,li pei kuai ,shenbian haoduo ren dou zai yong...
'Hello! This is GE You. Oh, telephone insurance? Choose Ping An. Big brand, fast claims. Many people around are using...5
54.二胎来了!您准备好了么?全能英才教育年金保障,助力缓解父母育儿压力(中国平安
全能英才教育年金保险 Ping An Insurance China Quanneng Yingcai education annuity)
er tai lai le ! nin zhunbei haole me ? quanneng yingcai jiaoyu nianjin baozhang, zhuli huanjie fumuyu "erya li
4Are you ready to have a second child? Quanneng Yingcai annuity helps reduce parenting stress'
55.假期旅行有保险 畅快游(中国平安Ping An Insurance China)
jiaqi Ivxing you baoxian, changkuai you
Teel free to travel during holidays with travel insurance,
56.平安车险快易免,专业,让生活更简单(中国平安Ping An Insurance China)
ping an che xian kuai yi mian / zhuanye / rang shenghuo geng jiandan
'Ping An car insurance: fast, easy and free. Professionalism makes life easier?
57.承诺不变,服务再升级(平安直通车险Ping An direct car insurance) chengnuo bu bian, fuwu zai shengji
'Unchanged commitment, upgraded service9
58.平安车险,省心省钱(中国平安Ping An Insurance)
ping an che xian, sheng xin sheng qian
'Ping An car insurance: save worry and money5
59.谁说理赔就要忍受繁琐?平安车险,快易免,心服务轻松省力(中国平安Ping An
Insurance China)
shui shuo li pei jiu yao renshou fansuo ? ping an che xian, kuai yi mian, xin fuwu qingsong shengli
'Who said that claims are cumbersome? Ping An car insurance: fast (claim payment), easy
(claim progress inquiry) and free (non-accident road rescue), with whole-hearted services5
60.平安直通车险 不止于领先(中国平安Ping An Insurance China)
ping an zhitong che xian, bu zhi yu lingxian
'Ping An direct car insurance: more than leading'
61.让爱没有缺口人生必须拥有七张保单(中国人寿China Life)
rang ai meiyou que kou, rensheng bixu yongyou qi zhang baodan
'To leave no gap to love, ifs necessary to have seven policies/
62.中国人寿,一言九鼎(中国人寿China Life)
zhongguo renshou, yi yan jiu ding
'China Life: one word is as heavy as nine tripods5
63.相知多年,值得托付(中国人寿China Life)
xiang zhi duo nian, zhide tuofu
"Knowing each other for many years, worthy of entrustment
64.漫漫人生路,浓浓人寿情(中国人寿China Life)
manman rensheng lu, nongnong renshou qing
65.前海速度,与你共进((前海人寿Qianhai Life Insurance))
qianhai sudu, yu ni gong jin
4 Progress together with you at Qianhafs speed,
66.微小投入,全面保护(微保Wesure)
weixiao touru, quanmian baohu
'Small investment, comprehensive protection9
67.年年返还 岁岁丰收(中国人寿China Life)
niannianfanhuan, suisui fengshou
'Annual dividend return year after year'
68.国寿福满一生两全(中国人寿 福满一生两全保险China Life Fuman %heng endowment
insurance)
guoshou fu man, yisheng liang quart
'China Life Fuman Wheng product: a lifetime of happiness9
69.车险服务,关爱每一辆车,每一个人,每一个家庭(中国人寿China Life)
che xian fuwu, guan ai mei yi liang che, mei yi ge ren, mei yi ge jiating
'Car insurance service, caring for every car, every person, and every family'
70.一路相伴,值得托付,中国人寿电话车险4008-007-007 (中国人寿China Life)
yilu xiang ban, zhide tuofu, zhongguo renshou dianhua che xian 4008-007-007
'China Life telephone car insurance 4008-007-007: worth entrusting all the way through9
71.安心出行,我有中国人寿财险(中国人寿China Life)
an xin chuxing, wo you zhongguo renshou cai xian
'With China Life property insurance, feel free to traveF
72.国寿瑞鑫,全心全意(中国人寿 瑞鑫两全保险China Life Ruixin endowment insurance) guoshou rui xin, quart xin quart yi
'China Life Ruixin insurance: serve the people heart and soul5
73.成己为人,成人达己(中国人寿China Life)
cheng ji wei ren, cheng ren da ji
'Improve oneself to serve others and benefit from others' success'
74.有中国人寿,踏实!保险让生活更美好(中国人寿China Life)
you zhongguo renshou, tashi! baoxian rang shenghuo geng meihao
'Enjoy peace of mind with China Life. Insurance makes life better?
75.国寿产品,承诺是金(中国人寿China Life)
guoshou chanpin, chengnuo shi jin
'China Life: the promise is gold5
76.臻享国寿福,健康好保障(中国人寿China Life)
zhen xiang guoshoufu, jiankang hao baozhang
4zhen xiang guoshoufu insurance, a good guarantee for health '
77.火车乘客意外伤害保障计划来了,人财双重保障低至3元(太平洋保险China Pacific Insurance(CPIC))
huoche chengke yiwai shanghai baozhang jihua lai le, ren cai shuangchong baozhang di zhi san yuan
'Train passenger accident insurance: guarantee for both people and finance costs as low as 3 yuan,
78.在你身边的道路救援说到就到(太平洋保险CPIC)
zai nin shenbian de daolu jiuyuan, shuo dao jiu dao
79.太平洋保险保太平(太平洋保险CPIC)
tai ping yang baoxian bao tai ping
4CPIC ensures peace?
80.太平洋保险,在您身边(太平洋保险CPIC)
tai ping yang baoxian, zai nin shenbian
'CPIC is by your side'
81.诚信天下,稳健一生,追求卓越(太平洋保险CPIC)
chengxin tianxia, wen jian yisheng, zhuiqiu zhuoyue
'Integrity, robustness and the pursuit of excellence,
82.太平洋保险,我们随时在您身边(太平洋保险CPIC)
tai ping yang baoxian, wo men suishi zai nin shenbian
4CPIC: we are always by your side'
83. 您打车,我报销!太平洋电话车险10108888,电话车险保到家(太平洋保险CPIC) nin dache, wo baoxiao! tai ping yang dianhua che xian yao ling yao ling ba ba ba ba, dianhua che xian bao daojia
'We'll reimburse your fare of taking a taxi. Call CPIC telephone car insurance 10108888 to get insured5
84.太平洋电话车险,省钱!不省服务!(太平洋保险CPIC)
tai ping yang dianhua che xian, shengqian! bu sheng fuwu!
4CPIC telephone car insurance saves costs without decreasing service9
85.用心承诺,用爱负责(太平洋保险CPIC)
yong xin chengnuo, yong aifuze
86.金佑人生保障计划,保障和时间一起长大(太平洋保险CPIC)
jin you rensheng baozhang jihua, baozhang he shijian yiqi zhangda
'Jinyou life protection plan: guarantee grows up as time goes'
87.道路救援,随叫随到(太平洋保险CPIC)
daolu jiuyuan, sui jiao sui dao
'Road rescue on call'
88.太平洋保险,在你身边,标准的流程,规范的动作,完美的细节,因为坚持,所以卓越
(太平洋保险CPIC)
tai ping yang baoxian, zai nin shenbian, biaozhun de liucheng, guifan de dongzuo, wanmei de xijie, yinwei jianchi, suoyi zhuoyue
'CPIC is by your side, excellent due to adhering to standard processes, standardized actions and perfect details'
89.买渤海保险,享泰达人生(渤海保险Bohai Property Insurance)
mai bohai baoxian, xiang tai da rensheng
'Enjoy a prosperous life with Bohai Property Insurance?
90.海纳百川 风雨同舟(渤海保险Bohai Property Insurance)
hai na bai chuan, fengyu tong zhou
'The oceans take all the rivers no matter where they are from, and we stand together through storm and stress with you'
91.关爱,让人生更开阔(新华保险New China Life)
guan ai, rang rengsheng geng kaikuo
'Caring brings more possibilities to life'
92.华实共享,承诺如新(新华保险 华实人生终生年金保险New China Life Huashi Rensheng
life annuity )
hua shi gongxiang, chengnuo ru xin
'Commitment to sharing5
93.一生幸福,新华承诺(新华保险New China Life)
yisheng xingfu, xinhua chengnuo
'A happy life New China Insurance promises'
94.会长大的保险(新华保险New China Life)
hui zhangda de baoxian
'An insurance that will grow up'
95.乐享人生 新华保险(新华保险New China Life)
le xiang rensheng, xinhua baoxian
'New China Insurance: enjoy life,
96.关爱人生每一天(新华保险New China Life)
xinhua baoxian: guan ai rensheng mei yitian
4 Caring for life every day'
97.忠人之事,保障一生(中国人民保险PICC)
zhong ren zhi shi, baozhang yisheng
'Loyal and trustable for a lifetime9
98.铸金牌服务,为梦想护航(中国人民保险PICC)
zhu jinpaifuwu, wei mengxiang hu hang
"Escort dreams with gold medal services'
99.人生无价,泰康有情(泰康人寿Taikang Life)
rensheng wujia, taikang you qing
'Life is priceless, while Taikang is caring5
100.—张保单保全家(泰康人寿Taikang Life)
yi zhang baodan bao quanjia
'A policy to protect the whole family9
101.泰康,全心为您(泰康人寿Taikang Life)
taikang, quanxin wei nin
'Taikang serves your need / is dedicated to you5
102.泰康在线,互联网保险专家,创新因为责任,创新只为担当(泰康在线Taikang Life
TKCN)
taikang zai xian, hulianwang baoxian zhuanjia, chuangxin yinwei zeren, chuangxin zhi wei dandang
'Taikang Online, Internet Insurance Specialist. Innovation due to responsibility?
103.重新定义互联网车险,车健康,人健康,行健康(泰康在线Taikang Life TKCN) chongxin dingyi hulianwang che xian, che jiankang, ren jiankang, xing jiankang 'Redefining Internet car insurance: healthy car, healthy people, and healthy travef
104.让保险更保险(微保Wesure)
rang baoxian, geng baoxian
'Make insurance more secure5
105.富及民众,德行天下(富德生命人寿Funde Sino Life)
fu ji min zhong, de xing tianxia
Tor the benefits of the people'
106.携手提升生命价值(富德生命人寿Funde Sino Life)
xieshou tisheng shengming jiazhi
'Work together to enhance the value of life'
107.车险直销,1分钟搞定,阳光闪赔,24小时到账(阳光保险Sunshine Insurance Group) che xian zhixiao, yi fenzhong gaoding, yangguang shan pei, er shi si xiaoshi daozhang 'Car insurance direct selling, get insured in one minute. Sunshine Insurance claim payment, into your account in 24 hours'
10&高性价比定期寿险,有娃有房贷的你很需要 邙日光保险Sunshine Insurance Group)
gao xing jia bi dingqi shou xian, you wa youfangdai de ni hen xuyao
4To raise children and pay mortgage, you need a cost-effective term life insurance,
109.您对意外伤害的担忧,我们帮您分担 邙日光保险Sunshine Insurance Group)
nin dui yiwai shanghai de danyou, wo men bang ninfendan
'Your concern about accidental injuries, we will help you share5
110.合众保险,理赔不难(合众人寿Union Life)
hezhong baoxian, lipei bu nan
'Union Life: ifs not difficult to make claims'
111.源于爱,传递爱,在中国每年有超过3000万家庭选择合众人寿(合众人寿Union Life) yuan yu ai, chuan di ai, zai zhongguo meinian you chaoguo san qian wan jiating xuanze hezhong renshou
'Deriving from love, passing love. More than 30 million families choose in China every year9
112.福玺年金,一诺千金(中意人寿 福玺年金保障计划Generali China Life Insurance Fuxi annuity)
fu xi nian jin, yi nuo qian jin
Tuxi annuity, a promise that will be kepf
113.以人为本,诚信规范,共创价值,服务社会(幸福人寿Happy Life Insurance)
yi ren wei ben, chengxin guifan, gong chuang jiazhi, fuwu shehui
"People-oriented, credible and standard, create value and serve the society9
114.天地之间,民生为先,民生人寿保民生(民生人寿Minsheng Insurance)
tiandi zhi jian, minsheng wei xian, minsheng renshou bao minsheng
'Between heaven and earth, people's livelihood is the first. Minsheng Insurance protects people's livelihood?
115.隽秀人生,健康相伴(民生人寿保险 如意隽康保险产品计划Minsheng Insurance Ruyi
Junkang insurance)
jun xiu rensheng, jiankang xiang ban
'Graceful life accompanied by health'
116.养老保障第三支柱,品质晚年安心保证(民生人寿保险 个人税收递延型养老年金保险
Minsheng Insurance personal tax deferred annuity )
yanglao baozhang disan zhizhu, pinzhi wannian an xin baozheng
4 The third pillar of old-age security, quality assurance in old age'
117.根植民众,造福民生(民生人寿保险Minsheng Insurance)
genzhi mindiong, zaofu minsheng
'Rooted in the people, for the benefit of the people's livelihood?
11&纽约人寿,传家之宝(纽约人寿New York Life)
niuyue renshou, chuanjia zhi bao
4New York Life, your heirloom'
119.海尔纽约人寿,您的传家之宝(海尔纽约人寿,现北大方正人寿曲ier New York Life,
renamed as PKU Founder Life)
hai er niuyue renshou, nin de chuanjia zhi bao
120.华夏之一诺,泰然若九鼎(华泰人寿Huatai Insurance) huaxia zhi yinuo, tai ran ruo jiu ding
'Huatai5s promise is as heavy as nine tripods'
121.专业品质,恒久保障(华泰人寿Huatai Insurance)
zhuanye pinzhi, hengjiu baozhang 'Professional quality, long-lasting guarantee9
122.携手安联,尽享周全(中德安联Allianz China Life Insurance) xie shou an lian, jin xiang zhouquan
'Join hands with Allianz and enjoy peace9
123.您的信心,来自安联的承诺(中德安联Allianz China Life Insurance) nin de xinxin, lai zi an lian de chengnuo
"Your confidence comes from Allianz^ commitment9
124.携手安联,探索无限(中德安联Allianz China Life Insurance) xieshou an lian, tansuo wuxian
"Join hands with Allianz and explore the unlimited9
125.百年友邦,每一刻,为更好(友邦中国AIAChina)
bainian you bang, mei yi ke, wei genghao
'AIA for a century, every moment for the better9
126.以信为本,点燃希望,为爱奔跑(友邦中国AIAChina) yi xin wei ben, dianran xiwang, wei ai benpao
'Integrity-oriented, ignite hope and run for love'
emergency rescue)
jinji shike, bufu zhong tuo
"Trustworthy in emergencies9
128.实力团队,值得信赖(海康人寿AEGON-CNOOC)
shili tuandui, zhide xinlai
'A strong team is trustworthy5
129.易变的岁月,不变的承诺(中宏人寿保险Manulife-Sinochem)
yi bian de suiyue, bu bian de chengnuo
4Constant commitment over changeable years'
130.健康成长路,福星添呵护(中宏人寿保险长保福星尊享版重大疾病保险
Manulife-Sinochem Changbao Fuxing major ilhess insurance)
jiankang chengzhang lu, fu xing tian hehu
"Fuxing insurance adds care to healthy growth,
131. 恒安标准 天天向上(恒安标准人寿 天天向上分红教育计划Heng An Standard Life
Tiantian Xiangshang education insurance with dividend)
heng an biaozhun, tiantian xiang shang
4Heng An Standard, day day up'
132.生活比生存更广阔(恒安标准人寿Heng An Standard Life)
shenghuo bi shengcun geng guangkuo
"Life is more than making a living5
133.重新定义/引领标准(金盛人寿,现工银安盛人寿保险AXA-Minmetals Assurance, renamed
as ICBC-AXA Life) chongxin dingyi, yinling biaozhun
134.财富人生,乐享安心(工银安盛人寿 财富乐享两全保险ICBC-AX A Life Caifu Lexiang
endowment insurance)
caifu rensheng, le xiang an xin
"With wealthy life, enjoy peace of mind'
135.财富称心,幸福优享(工银安盛人寿 财富优享两全保险ICBC-AXALife Caifu Youxiang
endowment insurance)
caifu chenxin, xingfu you xiang
"Gratified with wealth and enjoy happiness'
136* —朝牵手,关爱永久(太平洋安泰人寿,现建信人寿The Pacific Antai Life Insurance,
renamed as CCB Life Insurance)
yizhao qianshou, guan ai yongjiu
"Once in hand, caring forever9
137.信赖长生人寿,悠享长寿人生(长生人寿Great Wall Changsheng Life)
xin lai changsheng renshou, you xiang changshou rensheng
'Trust Great Wall Changsheng Life Insurance, enjoy longevity5
13&关爱生命,关爱家庭(广电日生人寿,现长生人寿Nissay-SVALife, renamed as Great Wall
Changsheng Life )
guan ai shengming, guan ai jiating
"Caring for life, caring for family'
139.忠实伴侣,守护一生(中银三星人寿Boc-SamsungLife)
zhongshi banlv, shouhu yisheng
,A partner for life9
140.以客为君,以君为贵(君龙人寿King Dragon Life)
yi ke wei jim, yi jun wei gui
'Customer-oriented9
141.君龙人寿,一生守候(君龙人寿King Dragon Life)
jun long nenshou, yisheng shouhou
'King Dragon Life Insurance: accompany for lifelong time '
142.诚相托,爱相随(国泰人寿Cathay Life Insurance)
cheng xiang tuo, ai xiang sui
"Trust & love'
143* —朝结缘,一生守信(信泰人寿Sinatay Insurance)
yizhao jie yuan, yisheng shou xin
"Once attached, a lifetime of trustworthiness'
144.信泰,信未来(信泰人寿Sinatay Insurance)
xin tai, xin weilai
"Sinatay, believe in the future5
145.托付正保,您的生活更美好(正德人寿,现君康人寿Zhengde Life Insurance, renamed
Junkang Life Insurance))
tuofu zheng bao, nin de shenghuo geng meihao
"Entrusted with Zhengde Insurance, your life will be better'
146.正扬信诚,立德为民(正德人寿,现君康人寿Zhengde Life Insurance, renamed Junkang
Life Insurance))
zheng yang xin cheng, li de wei min
'Integrity & Wtues'
147.守护每一个家的安康(君康人寿JK Life Insurance)
shouhu mei yi ge jia de an kang
"Protect the well-being of every home'
14&服务基层,服务三农(中邮人寿China Post Life)
fuwu jiceng, fuwu san nong
'Serving grass root units, serving agriculture, rural areas and farmers9
149.信送到哪里,中邮保险就到哪里(中邮人寿China Post Life)
xin song dao nali, zhong you baoxian jiu dao nali
'Where the letter is sent, where China Post Insurance is'
150.亲和,诚信,专业,价值(安邦人寿Anbang Life Insurance)
qinhe, chengxin, zhuanye, jiazhi
'Affinity, integrity, professionalism, value'
151.稳稳的幸福(安邦保险Anbang Insurance)
wenwen de xingfu
'Secure happiness5
152.保障在心,感受随心(汇丰人寿HSBC Life)
baozhang zai xin, ganshou sui xin
'With guarantee in mind, be what you are9
153.一险多保,意外无忧(新光海航新海安意意外伤害保险Shin Kong-HNALife XinhaiAnyi
Acc ident Insurance )
yi xian duo bao, yiwai yvuyou
'One insurance covering multi-risk protection brings you no worries5
154.重重护卫,千里无忧(新光海航附加达安意外伤害保险Shin Kong-HNALife Additional
Da' an Acc ident Insurance )
chongchong huyvei, qianli yvuyou
"Heavy guards, worry-free thousand miles away'
155.守护健康,保障未来(新光海航附加呵护一生防癌疾病保险Shin Kong-HNA Life
Additional care for life-long cancer prevention insurance)
shouhu jiankang, baozhang weilai
'Guarding health and protecting the future?
156.创新百年,关爱永恒(百年人寿Aeon Life)
chuangxin bai nian, guan ai yongheng
'Innovative for a century, caring lasting forever9
157.优选健康,护您一生(百年人寿优选护身福终身重大疾病险Aeon Life Youxuan Hushenfu
lifelong major illness insurance )
you xuan jiankang, hu nin yisheng
'Youxuan Health insurance protects your life'
15&臻心之选,关爱倍至(百年人寿臻享保险产品计划Aeon Life Zhenxiang insurance product
plan)
zhen xin zhi xuan, guan ai bei zhi
'Delightful choice, double care9
159.—个人的健康,全家人的幸福(百年人寿福瑞安康重大疾病保障计划Aeon Life Fuirui
Ankang major iltoess insurance)
Yi ge ren de jiankang, quart jia ren de xingfu
4A person's health is the happiness of the whole family?
160.一生保障,在你左右(中英人寿Aviva-Cofco Life Insurance)
yisheng baozhang, zai ni zuoyou
161.加倍,为爱呵护一生(中英人寿爱呵护重大疾病保险Aviva-Cofco Life Insurance Aihehu major illness insurance)
jiabei, wei ai hehu yisheng
'Double life care with love9
162.诚信百年,一诺千金(招商信诺CIGNA & CMB Life Insurance)
chengxin bainian, yi nuo qian jin
"Faithful for a century, and always keep promise,
163.美好生活,自在掌握(招商信诺CIGNA & CMB Life Insurance)
meihao shenghuo, zi zcii zhangwo
'The good life is in your hands'
164.做超人爸妈,让宝贝幸福成长(招商信诺少儿教育年金保险产品计划CIGNA & CMB
Life Insurance Children's Education Annuity Insurance Product Plan)
zuo chaoren bama, rang baobei xingfu chengzhang
'Be super parents, and let your child grow up happily5
165.财富传家,享悦年年(招商信诺个人与家庭保险CIGNA & CMB Life Insurance personal and family insurance)
caifu chuan jia, xiang yue niannian
'Bequeath wealth to the family, enjoy pleasure year by year9
166.传递爱与责任(华夏保险Hua Insurance )
chuandi ai yu zeren
"Pass love and responsibility9
167.华夏红,值得托付的年金保险方案(华夏保险 华夏红年金Hua Insurance Huaxiahong
annuity)
huaxiahong, zhide tuofu de nian jin baoxian fang an
"Huaxiahong, an entrusted annuity insurance plan9
16&连接保险,让爱更简单(华夏保险Hua Insurance)
lianjie baoxian, rang ai geng jiankang
'Get insured to make love easier9
169.财务稳健,信守一生(友邦保险AIA)
caiwu wen jian, xin shou yisheng
'Financial soundness, a lifelong promise?
170.健康长久好生活(友邦保险AIA)
jiankang changjiu hao shenghuo
'Live a long and healthy life'
171.真生活,真伙伴(友邦保险AIA)
zhen shenghuo, zhen huoban
'The real life company?
172.真生活不停步(友邦保险AIA)
zhen shenghuo, bu ting bu
'Real life never stops'
173.健康关爱,安享人生(交银康联人寿 健康人生重疾保障计划BoComm Life Healthy Life
Critical Illness Protection Plan )
jiankang guan ai, an xiang rensheng
'Enjoy life with health care9
174.您的健康管家(交银康联人寿BoComm Life)
nin de jiankang guanjia
4 Your health butler?
175.轻重疾保障全,终身健康守护(交银康联交银安康终身重大疾病保险BoComm Life
Ankang Lifelong Serious Disease Insurance)
qing zhong ji baozhang quart, zhongshen jiankang shouhu
'Comprehensive serious disease insurance covering mild cases, lifelong health guard,?
176.财富规划,优享尊荣(交银康联终身寿险BoComm Life insurance whole life insurance) caifu guihua, you xiang zun rung
'Plan wealth, enjoy honor?
177.资金规划有序灵活,终身复利稳健增长(交银鑫金保 终身寿险BoComm Life Xinjinbao
whole life insurance )
zijin guihua youxu linghuo, zhongshen fuli wenjian zengzhang
'Capital planning is orderly and flexible, and life-long compound interest grows steadily'
17&年年领取,保障安心,周转随心(交银安享 年金保险BoComm Life annuity) nian nian lingqu, baozhang an xin, zhouzhuan sui xin
4A reliable guarantee: you'll receive money annually, and you'll have enough to go round as you wish'
179.人保车险,地空联动救援,确保行车更安全(中国人民保险PICC)
ren bao che xian, di kong lian dong jiuyuan, que bao xingche geng anquan
'PICC car insurance provides ground and air rescue to ensure safer driving'
180.车险投保,就选人保(中国人民保险PICC)
che xian tou bao, jiu xuan ren bao
'Buy car insurance, choose PICC5
181.买人保车险,享免费救援(中国人民保险PICC)
mai ren bao che xian, xiang mianfei jiuyuan
'Buy PICC car insurance, enjoy free rescue5
182.新车险,选人保(中国人民保险 The People's Insurance Company (Group) of China, PICC)
xin che xian, xuan ren bao
'Choose PICC car insurance for your new car9
183.众诚车险,专业服务(众诚汽车保险Urtrust Insurance)
zhong cheng che xian, zhuan ye fu wu
'Urtrust car insurance: professional services5
184.寿世济人,利润天下(中融人寿保险ZhongrongLife Insurance)
shou shi ji ren, li run tian xia
'Benefit people and repay society'
185.中致和,融天下(中融人寿保险Zhongrong Life Insurance)
zhong zhi he, rong tian xia
'Hold impartially to seek harmony with the world5
186.前瞻所有,海纳所需(前海人寿Qianhai Life Insurance)
qian zhan suo you, hai na suo xu
"Foresee all risks and meet all the needs like the sea'
187.聆听所至,信诚所在(中信保诚人寿保险CBTIC Prudential Life Insurance)
ling ting suo zhi, xin cheng suo zcii
"CBTIC Prudential Insurance: always listen to you5
18&全年畅行不限次,25元TOO万航意险(中信保诚E畅行交通意外伤害保险CBTIC
Prudential Life Insurance E Changxing traffic accident insurance )
quan nian chang xing bu xian ci, er shi yvu yuan dengyu yi bai wan hang yi xian
'Unlimited for the whole year, 25 yuan = 1 million aviation accident insurance9
189.传缔荣耀,信承致远(中信保诚传家产品CBTIC Prudential Life Insurance Chuan Jia product)
chuan di rongyao, xin cheng zhi yuan
'Pass and create glory, achieve the great goal with integrity5
190.利•有道,安•无限(利安人寿Lian Life Insurance)
li you dao, an wu xian
'Earn profits in a proper way, peace will be unlimited5
191.至真至诚,利安保险(利安人寿Lian Life Insurance)
zhi zhen zhi cheng, li an baoxian
'Sincere and loyal, Lian Insurance,
192.乐享退养,活出所想(光大永明乐活养老年金保险Sun Life Everbright Life Insurance Le
Huo annuity )
le xiang tui yang, huo chu suo xiang
'Enjoy the life of retirement and live out what you wanf
193.精彩人生,源自大东方(中新大东方人寿,现恒大人寿Zhongxin Grand Oriental Person^
life Insurance, renamed as Evergrande Life)
jingcai rensheng, yuanzi da dong fang
'Life is greaf
194.包含中症的疾病保险产品计划(光大永明童佳保保险产品计划Sun Life Everbright Life
Insurance Tongjiabao product)
bao han zhong zheng de jibing baoxian chanpin jihua
'Disease insurance product covering symptoms of moderate severity5
195.专业,价值 (中国平安Ping An Insurance)
zhuanye, jiazhi
'Profession & Slue'
196.肩负国任,志在远方(国任保险GuorenP&C)
jianfu guo ren, zhi zai yuanfang
'Shoulder the responsibility of the country, aiming in the distance9
197.国之重任,任重道远(国任保险GuorenP&C)
guo zhi zhong ren, ren zhong dao yuan
'The responsibility of the country, a long way to go'
198. 只有做得到的,才是真的约定。国任保险,珍视和您的每一次约定(国任保险Guoren
P&C)
zhiyou zuo de dao de, cai shi zhende yueding. guo ren baoxian, zhenshi he nin de mei yi ci yueding
'Only what could be done is the true agreement. Guoren insurance: cherish every appointment with you?
199.你不知道她什么时候长大,但她知道你的守护一直都在,国任保险,守护始终(国任保
险 Guoren P&C)
ni bu zhidao ta shenme shihou zhangda, dan ta zhidao ni de shouhu yizhi dou zai, guo ren baoxian, shouhu shizhong
'You don't know when she will grow up, but she knows that your guardianship is always there. Guoren Insurance: the guardian is always there?
200.客户最不愿见到,也是客户在意外发生时最想见到(国任保险GuorenP&C)
kehu zui bu yuan jian dao, ye shi kehu zai yiwai fasheng shi zui xiang jian dao
'The thing that a customer is most reluctant to see, and that a customer wants to see the most
English commercial insurance ads:
1.Ybu're in good hands. (Allstate Insurance Company)
2.Good hands for the good life. (Allstate Insurance Company)
3.Ybu're in good hands with Allstate. (Allstate Insurance Company)
4.Save money and be better protected from Mayhem like me. (Allstate Insurance Company)
5.Engine troubles. Thafs Mayhem. Are you in good hands? (Allstate Insurance Company)
6.Bring your auto rates down to sea level. (Allstate Insurance Company)
7.We Still Climb. (Allstate Insurance Company)
8.Nobody protects riders better than Allstate. (Allstate Insurance Company)
9.Restless for a reason. (AXA Insurance Company)
10.Redefining standards. (AXA Insurance Company)
11.Why pay as much as a bad driver? Safe drivers pay less car insurance with AXA.
(AXA Insurance Company)
12.A medical plan for your employees and their family members (AXA Healthcare)
13.Be life confident. (AXA)
14.Live without worries. (AXA Mansard.)
15.Make the right call. AXA Mansard. (AXA First responders.)
16.Patrick's back for the big presentation, with a little help from AXA. (AXA Healthcare)
17.AXA, the No.l global insurance brand, now available at a Post Office near you. (AXA @ POST)
18.Stress can ruin the joy of raising a family. Enjoy parenthood with AXA Family Advantage. (AXA)
19.Go ahead. Go ahead with AXA. (AXA Insurance Company)
20.For all the Nevers in life, State Farm is there. (State Farm Insurance Company)
21.Get to a better State. (State Farm Insurance Company)
22.Like a good neighbor, State Farm is there. (State Farm Insurance Company)
23.Here to help life go right. (State Farm Insurance Company)
24.Never leave kids or pets in a hot car. (State Farm Insurance Company)
25.Ifs more than a privilege to be your choice for life insurance. Its an honor. (State Farm Insurance Company)
26.We*re right next door. (State Farm Insurance Company)
27.Great car insurance. Thafs also a great value. (State Farm Insurance Company)
2& When You Use a Mobile While you Drive, Your Head is Somewhere Else. (Fundacion Seguros Caracas)
29.I can do this. (MetLife Insurance)
30.The stability of MetLife is monumental. (MetLife Insurance)
31.Freedom Lives Here (Primerica)
32.Guarantees for the if in life. (MetLife Insurance)
33.Buy term and invest the difference (Primerica)
34.Have you met life today? (MetLife Insurance)
35.Get Met. It Pays. (MetLife Insurance)
36.Not all ifs in life are the same. (MetLife Insurance)
37.Security is knowing your financial needs are met. (MetLife Insurance)
38.Peace of mind. Guaranteed. (MetLife Insurance)
39.It's at times like this that Metlife sets itself apart. (MetLife Insurance)
40.Know the Gaps. (Farmers Insurance)
41.We are Farmers. (Farmers Insuranc e)
42.Gets you back where you belong. (Farmers Insurance)
43.We Know From Experience. At Farmers, we've seen almost everything so we know how to cover almost anything (Farmers Insurance)
44.We keep our promises to you. (Arnica Mutual Insurance, USA)
45.We make our customers9 problems our problems. (Arnica, USA)
46.The home of home insurance. (Norwich Union Direct)
47.Let us quote you happy. (Norwich Union Direct)
48.Make sense of it with Norwich Union. (Norwich Union Direct)
49.Conseco. Step up. (Conseco, Insurance, Annuity, and other financial Solutions, USA)
50.Higher Standards (Rome Insurance Agency, Fitchburg, Massachusetts)
51.The industry is history (White Mountains Insurance Group)
52.A Business of Caring (Cigna)
5 3. We w ant you to know. (Aetna)
54.Above all in service (Erie Insurance Group)
55.Our Plans Are Based on Yours (Assurant)
56.Chubb. Insured. (Chubb, property and casualty insurer)
57.Insurance against regret. (Chubb, property and casualty insurer)
58.Relax. You're insured with Chubb. (Chubb, property and casualty insurer)
59.Peace of mind. (Chubb, property and casualty insurer)
60.Insurance with insight (Chubb)
61.Big Insurance for Small Business. (Chubb US Small commercial insurance)
62.Transform tomorrow. (Transamerica)
63.Ifs Real Now. (Transamerica)
64.WE ARE THE TOMORROW MAKERS (Transamerica)
65.The power of the Pyramid. (Transamerica)
66.For life's little dramas. (Aviva, British insurance company)
67.Taking care ofwhafs important. (Aviva, British insurance company)
68.We've got you under our wing. (AFLAC Insurance Company)
69.Aflac. Ask about it at work. (AFLAC Insurance Company)
70.AFLAC. Without it, no insurance is complete. (AFLAC Insurance Company)
71.Insuring Over Fourty Million People Worldwide. (AFLAC Insurance Company)
72.The "No Problem^^ People (Auto-Owners Insurance)
73.We' re Big, Safe and Friendly (Genworth Finane ial)
74.The Quiet Company. (Northwestern Mutual)
75.Spend Your Life Living (Northwestern Mutual)
76.Protection for your (whole) life (Northwestern Mutual whole life insurance)
77.Protect your largest asset. (Northwestern Mutual Disability insurance)
78.Live longer, better. (Northwestern Mutual Long-term care)
79.Get an income for life. (Northwestern Mutual annuities)
80.Race for Retirement (Prudential Insurance Company of America)
81.Bring your challenges. (Prudential Finaneial)
82.Live well. Make apian. Be your own rock. (Prudential Insurance Company of America)
83.Life insurance can make your todays and tomorrows secure (Prudential Financial)
84.What matters to you? (Safeco)
85.Lefs Thrive. (Thrivent Finaneial for Lutherans)
86.Be wise with money. (Thrivent)
87.Connecting faith & finances for good! (Thrivent Finaneial)
88.Financial Strength is the cornerstone of our success. (Western & Southern Financial Group)
89.Financial Strength & Stability for the Ones You Love. Fulfilling our promises for generations of families — just like yours — for 130 years. (Western & Southern Financial Group)
90.Only You Can Envision Your Future, but We Can Help Protect It (Western & Southern Financial Group Life Insurance)
91.Better Benefits at Work. (Unum)
92.To serve, not to be served (AARP)
93.Real possibilities. (AARP)
94.I may be gray, but my money is as green as it gets. (AARP)
95.The older I get, the prettier my portfolio is. (AARP)
96.You're there for mom. We*re here for you. (AARP)
97.Begin Today (Mutual of Omaha)
98.Strength, Protection and \lgilance (Sentry Insurance)
99.Responsiblity. What's your policy? (Liberty Mutual Insurance Group)
100.Liberty stands with you. (Liberty Mutual Insurance Group)
101.Life event discounts. (Liberty Mutual Insurance Group)
102.Accident forgiveness. (Liberty Mutual Insurance Group)
103.Only Pay for What You Need (Liberty Mutual Insurance Group)
104.Quality is our policy. (Reliance Insurance Company)
105.If your future self could talk to you — what would it say? (Line oh National)
106.Helping People Live Healthier Lives (UnitedHealth Group)
107.Keep good going. (New York Life Insurance Company)
108.New York Life. The company you keep. (New York Life Insurance Company)
109.Start a Plan that Flexes with Yours (New York Life Insurance Company)
110.Be Good at Life (New York Life Insurance Company)
111.The power to help you succeed. (Pacific Life Insurance Company)
112.Power of Pacific (Pacific Life Insurance Company)
113.The beginning of something even better (Pacific lifetime income)
114.Retire, without retiring from life (Pacific Life Insurance Company)
115.Living a well-lived life (Pacific Life Insurance Company)
116.Planning for the unexpected (Pacific Life Insurance Company)
117.Making meaningful moments (Pacific Life Insurance Company)
118.Insurance solutions from A to Z. (Allianz)
119.From the bridge to your car. One insurer. (Allianz Insurance from A-Z OQ
120.Ahhh...llianz (Allianz)
121.Beeause it matters (Allianz)
122.Don't just be insured. Be inspired. (Allianz)
123.Be sure, not just insured. (Allianz)
124.You can trust Allianz. (Allianz)
125.Hopefully covered by Allianz (... hoffentlich Allianz versichert) (Allianz)
126.For all thafs ahead. (Allianz Life, retirement & life insurance solutions)
127.Allianz Moments...being there for customers in life's important moments (Allianz)
128.We have a mutual interest — you. (Mutual of Wausau Insurance Corporation)
129.Helpfulness insured. (Arnica Mutual Insurance Company)
130.Insuring progress. (ACE Group)
131.Take away the risk and you can do anything. (ACE Group)
132.Taking the risk out of your home, farm or business... (Keystone National Insurance
Company)
133.Enriching the lives of people we touch. (Guardian Life Insurance Company of America)
134.Everyone deserves a Guardian. (Guardian Life Insurance)
135.A retirement you can look forward to and the income to match. (Guardian annuity)
136.Some things make you feel better about life. Life insurance is one of them. (Guardian
Life insurance)
137.You can't work. Fortunately, your coverage will. (Guardian disability income insurance)
138.Who we are. (Guardian Life Ins. Co. of America)
139.Driven to be the best (Autonation)
140.The company to remember for life. (American National Insurance Company)
141.Give your child an advantage for life. (Gerber Life Insurance Company)
142.First for you. (RBC Insurance, Canada)
143.The relationship company. (Western National Insurance)
144.Allied On your side (Allied Insurance)
145.Feel secure. (Penn National Insurance)
146.On your side. (Nationwide Mutual Insurance)
147.A better way of life. (Penn Mutual)
148.Sharing Knowledge. Building Trust. (Westfield Insurance)
149.We know what it means to serve (USAA)
150.Only Progressive gives you the option to name your price (Progressive)
151.Think easier. Think Progressive. (Progressive)
152.Now that's Progressive. Call or Click today. (Progressive)
153.Big savings for small business owners—like you. (Progressive)
154.Our business is healthcare but our customer is humanity. (Wellpoint)
155.All your protection under one roof. (American Family Insurance)
156.We know Money. (AIG or American International Group Insurance Company)
157.Service leader in commercial insurance. (Alaska National)
158.Bring on tomorrow. (AIG)
159.Out here, you don*t walk away from a commitment. (AIG Bring on tomorrow)
160.Insurance on your own terms. But not on your own. (AIG Bring on tomorrow)
161.More capaCBTy. Fewer carriers. (AIG Bring on tomorrow)
162.A better dec is ion (Health Net)
163."Whoever you are, whatever your health care needs 一 We are your Health Net.™n
(Health Net)
164.Guidance when you need it most. (Humana)
165.We511 Give You an Edge. (Principal Financial Group)
166.Staying calm when the market is not. (Principal Financial Group)
167.Everything Counts, Everyone Matters (W.R. Berkley)
168.Pay ONLINE for when you finally go OFFLINE.
169.Live a Long Life with Protection.
170.You Know Us.
171.Your Life is in Our hands.
172.The Last Coverage You911 Ever Need.
173.More than just car insurance. (Geico)
174.15 minutes could save you 15% on car insurance. (Geico)
175.So easy, a caveman could do it (Geico)
176 there's an easier way to save money. (Geico)
177.Happier than Christopher Columbus with speedboats! (Geico)
178.What the world does. We undo. (Tower Insurance (New Zealand))
179.Insurance for the Modern World (Esurance)
180.surprisingly painless (Esurance)
181.Compare the Meerkat (Compare The Market)
182.What's the best that can happen? Optimism can. (Sonnet)
183.Insurance specifically designed for women. (1st For Women)
184.Smart, dynamic, term life insurance online. (Ladder)
185.We'll deal with the life insurance. You deal with life. (Leaplife)
186.The easy way to compare and buy insurance. (Policygenius)
187.Insure your life. It's never been easier, (ethos)
188.Life insurance? But Pm invincible/ in my prime/ too young/ healthy, (ethos)
189.Fast online term life insurance, (bestow)
190.Built for life, (bestow)
191.Life insurance thafs actually simple, (ffeven Life)
192.Celebrating the health conscious (Health IQ Insurance)
193.Insurance for the health conscious (Health IQ Insurance)
194.If you care, we care. (AAA)
195.Insure with someone you trust (AAA)
196.Auto rates as great as our service. (AAA)
197.Go beyond the bumper. (AAA)
198.The AAA you trust offers insurance too. (AAA)
199.Helping people through difficult times. (Assurity)
200.15 minutes could save you 15 percent or more on your car insurance. (Geico)

【从关联理论和概论整合理论的角度分析 英汉商业保险广告中的双关语】相关文章

《从关联理论和概论整合理论的角度分析 英汉商业保险广告中的双关语》

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